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31 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
How does the placenta add into the cardiovascular system during pregnancy?
So what does an extra resistor in parallel do to total resistance?
Decreases it - like opening up a 3rd lane in a tollway.
What are the main changes that occur in maternal cardiovascular physiology during pregnancy?
1. TPR goes down
2. HR goes up
3. CO goes up
4. MAP dips down then up
2 reasons that TPR goes down:
1. Added a parallel resistor
2. Venous distention - the leg veins dilate and edema occurs
What happens to respiratory rate during pregnancy?
What happens to tidal volume during pregnancy?
Increases by 30-40%
What happens to Expiratory reserve during pregnancy?
It goes down because you're increasing tidal volume
What happens to vital capacity during pregnancy?
What happens to respiratory minute volume during pregnancy?
Increases by 40%
Why don't you pant during pregnancy?
Because progesterone changes the setpoint of the chemoreceptors
What happens to renal flow during pregnancy?
Increases 25-50%
What happens to GFR during pregnancy?
Increases early then plateaus
What happens to body and uterine weight during pregnancy?
Both increase
What triggers parturition?
We don't know
What is the Fetal adrenal theory of parturition initiation?
The adrenal gland in the fetus produces something that stimulates parturition.
Whatever the signal, what happens once uterine contractions start?
The baby's head stretches the cervix and excites more contraction.
What detects the cervical stretching due to the baby's head??
Cervical stretch receptors
What does increased firing in cervical stretch receptors do?
Stimulates CNS relays to cause the release of oxytocin from the SO and PVN axons in the hypothalamus and post pit
What does the release of oxytocin from the posterior pituitary do? (2 things)
1. Excites uterine contraction
2. Stimulates milk EJECTION
Does the cervical stretch stimulate milk letdown via oxytocin?
No suckling does
how come oxytocin during childbirth doesn't cause milk letdown?
Because progesterone and estrogen are still high when the placenta's there.
So when can the mom start nursing?
After delivery of the placenta!
What are the 2 main roles of Prolactin after pregnancy?
1. To spike everytime the baby suckles to maintain milk production
2. To suppress FSH/LH and prevent another pregnancy too soon
What are the 2 stimulants of prolactin release?
1. Pregnancy (prepares for nursing)
2. Suckling (keeps the breasts able to nurse after pregnancy)
HWhat happens to estrogen levels in women after menopause?
They're virtually very low
Why does estrogen go so low after menopause?
Because the ovary fails
What happens to pituitary GnRH after menopause?
It goes up
So what are the gonadotropin levels in women after menopause?
FSH/LH are high
How does estrogen affect bones?
It is ANTI-RESORPTIVE and keeps bones mineralized.
Is menopause the only cause of osteoporosis?
No it can be caused by hypogonadism in either men or women, etc.
What is the direct effect of decreased estrogen/testosterone on bone?
-Increased bone resorption
-Decreased bone formation