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171 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
The ______ is a cup-like depression in the hip where the _________ articulates.
acetabulum; head of the femur
The ____________ bones (3) articulate at the acetabulum.
pubis; ischium; ileum
The obturator foramen is circumscribed by:___ & ____.
ishium & pubic bones
Tlooking from within the pelvis outward, the acetabulum is located _____ to the obturator foramen.
posteriolateral
The analagous structure to tubercles of the humerous are _______ of the femur.
trochanters
The ________ trochanter is more posteriorly located.
lesser
The femur has slight ________ convexity.
anterior
The condylar surface of the knee articulates with _____.
patella (and tibia)
The ___________ is located ANTRERIORLY between the greater and lesser trochanter.
intertrochanteric line
The ___________ is located POSTERIORLY between the greater and lesser trochanter.
intertrochanteric crest
The roughened area lateral to lesser trochanter is called ___________.
gluteal tuberosity (it's also the superior lateral line of linea aspera)
The ___________ is where the gluteus maximus inserts.
gluteal tuberosity
The roughened, raised line on the posterior surface of the body of femur is _____.
linea aspera
The linea aspera descends and gives off ___________.
medial and lateral lips
The medial and lateral lips of the linea aspera descend and give off ______.
medial and lateral supracondylar ridges
On the medial epicondyle, there is a bony protuberance called the ______.
What attaches here?
adductor tubercle;
hamstring part of adductor magnus
The angle that the neck of femur makes w/long axis of femur is called _____ & is about ____º
angle of inclination; 126
In females, the angle of inclination is ____ (smaller or larger). Females hips are broader because _____.
smaller; they have to adjust for smaller angle by tilting femur (greater trochanter)more latrally
The hip joint is ______ compared to the glenohumeral joint, and is ______ mobile.
tighter (more stability); less
The _____ is the thickening around the edge of the acetabulum.
acetabular labrum
___________ is a roughened area located on the lateral aspect of the superior tibia.
GERDY'S TUBERCLE
________ attaches to Gerdy's tubercle.
IT (IleoTibial) tract
_____ is a centrally located 'lump' where the ___ attaches.
tibial tuberosity
________ attaches to the tibial tuberosity.
Quadriceps tendon (indirectly from patella)
The ________ ligament is said to be strongest in the body. It runs from ____ to _____.
Iliofemoral (Y ligament of Bigelow);
AIIS to intertrochanteric line
The ______ ligament is medial to the iliofemoral lig.
pubofemoral
The ILIOPECTINEAL BURSA rests deeply between gap in _____, and superficially on the _____ muscle.
iliofemoral & pubofemoral ligaments; iliopsoas
Iliofemoral ligament limits ____ of thigh to about ___º.
extension; 30 degrees
The _______ keeps you from kicking yourself in the back of the head.
iliofemoral ligament (limits you to 30º motion)
The _____ ligamentS resist the amound of ABduction that one can do.
pubofemoral; ischiofemoral
A super deep ligament of the hip is the _______.
zona orbicularis
Clinically the only way to dislocate head of femur from acetabulum is ____________.
by stretching or disrupting the acetabular labrum
The ligament of the head (of the femur) helps to reduce the amount of _______.
adduction
The ligament of the head is most taut in _____ of the hip joint.
adduction
The _________ supplies the head of the femur, but may not be sufficient enough to supply entire head of femur.
artery of the ligament of the head
The artery of the ligament of the head arises most often from _______.
posterior branch of the obturator artery
The artery of the ligament of the head can sometimes arise from _______.
medial circumflex artery of femur
The overlying labrum in the gap of the acetabulum (_____ aspect) is called the ______.
ANTERIOR ASPECT;
TRANSVERSE ACETABULAR LIGAMENT
The ligament of the head runs right into ________.
acetabular notch
The aDductors of the thigh can be temporarily knocked out so that the legs will fully aBduct by ________.
Palpating obturator crest & injecting anesthesia so the obturator nerve will temp. be knocked out.
The main blood contribution to the proximal neck & head of femur is by ________.
lateral & medial circumflex arteries of femur.
The external iliac artery divides into ______.
femoral artery & deep femoral artery
From the profundi femoral artery comes the ___ & ____.
Medial & lateral circumflex femoral arteries
The ______ gives most of the blood supply to proximal femur, while the _____ supplies the surrounding muscles & soft tissue.
MEDIAL CIRCUMFLEX-bone;
LATERAL CIRCUMFLEX-muscles & soft tissue.
Fracturing the neck of the femur could cause necrosis of the head (and later disarticulation & FRACTURE of hip) b/c _______.
Circumflex arteries supplying hip can be disrupted thereby causing necrosis
The circumflex vessels are found just _____ to the capsule of the hip joint.
deep
The hip is innervated by which nerves?
obturator (anterior division); femoral; accessory obturator; superior gluteal; n. to quadratus femoris
HILTON'S LAW describes the hip's innervation: _______.
neres that innervate muscles that cross a joint probably also innervate that joint sensory-wise as well
Between 5-8% of population has _____________ nerve. Where does it run?
accessory obturator; ABOVE OBTURATOR FORAMEN & over pubic bone.
The superior gluteal nerve innervates _______ muscles & as well as ______.
gluteus medius & minimus; hip joint
The quadratus femorus is a _____ rotator of hip that is innervated by ______.
lateral; nerve of quadratus femoris
The femoral nerve runs _____ to hip joint.
ANTERIOR
Since HIPS are normally DISLOCATED ______, one is likely to injure the _____.
posteriorly; SCIATIC NERVE
The _______ is the fascia of the thigh.
fascia lata
Fascia lata has a defect in a place in it, which is covered by _______.
cribriform fascia
Cribriform fascia has _____ (like swiss cheese).
holes
The holes in the cribriform fascia (that is in defect of fascia lata) allow for ____.
saphenous vein to penerate that deep fascia & enter into its central vein
The _____ is the longest vein in the body.
great saphenous vein
The great saphenous vein BEGINS in the ______ and runs _____ to the MEDIAL MALLEOLUS.
dorsal venous arch of foot; ANTERIOR
The great saphenous vein runs in the _____ portion of the leg & thigh & empties into _____.
middle; femoral vein
The femoral artery is an extension of ______ below ____.
external iliac; inguinal ligament
As the femoral artery courses the ANTERIOR thigh, it will change its name to ____ once it goes through ___.
popliteal artery; adductor hiatus
The deep femoral artery gives off ______, as well as ______.
femoral circumflex aa; perforating arteries
The perforating arteries of the deep femoral aa. provide blood to ____ & ______.
some ADDUCTOR muscles; hamstrings
The medial femoral circumflex runs _____ to proximal femur, then pierces ________.
ANTERIOR; area b/tw iliopsoas & pectineus muscles
The posterior compartment of the thigh contains ______.
hamstring muscles
The medial compartment of the thigh contains ____.
most of adductor muscles
The quadriceps from the majority of the _____ portion of the thigh.
anterior
The iliopsoas muscle is compromised of ____ & ____.
Psoas major; iliacus muscles
The iliopsoas is the only muscle that attaches on the ______.
lesser tronchanter
The iliopsoas runs ____ to the inguinal ligament.
deep
The ________ is the most powerful hip flexor.
iliopsoas
The ____ &____ form the floor of femoral triangle.
iliopsoas & pectineus
The pectineus arises from ____ & attaches to _____.
pecten of pubis; pectineal line (distal to lesser trochanter)
The actions of pectineus are varied. They include _____.
minimal flexion of the thigh; adduction; some internal rotation
The sartorius muscle is the crossing legs (indian style) muscle. Actions include:____.
external rotation of hip; abduction of hip; flex the knee; flex thigh
The sartorius arises from the _____ and attaches to the _____.
ASIS; medial tibia (pes anserine).
The tensor fascia lata arises from _____ and is actually a _____ muscle.
bony parts of ASIS; gluteal
The tensor fascia lata is innervated by ____, and has function of _____.
superior gluteal nerve; anterior thigh muscle
The adductor longus arises from ___ & inserts into ____.
inferior pubic ramus; medial lip if linea aspera
The gracilis arises from ____ & inserts into ______.
inferior pubic ramus; medial tibia
The main adductors of the thigh are the _____ & ____.
adductor longis & gracilis
The _______ muscles are more or less fused and hard to separate.
vastus (medialis; intermedius; lateralis)
The action of the quadriceps is _____ & ____.
flex the hip; extend the knee
The sctions of the hamstrings are ___ & ___.
extend the hip; flex the knee
The only one of the quad muscles to cross hip joint is _______.
rectus femoris
The rectus femoris arises from ___ & extends to _____.
ASIS; tibial tuberosity
The 3 vastus muscles arise from ____ & extend to _____.
femur; patella then tibial tuberosity
A new way to think about patellar ligaments is: Patella is ____. It floats in ____. Therefore, patella acts as ______.
largest sesamoid bone in the body; quadriceps tendon; fulcrum, helping the knee to extend w/less energy.
The patella can be thought as giving _____ so the quads don't have to work so hard.
more mechanical advantage
The quadriceps as a whole tend to ___ the patella ___.
subluxate/dislocate the patella LATERALLY
The vastus medialis has ____ fibers that attach directly to patella & _____.
HORIZONTAL; compensate for lateral pull
For someone with chronic patella dislocations, a PT may ___________.
accentuate fxn of lower fibers of vastus medialis
The rectus femoris actually has 2 tendons of attachment: ___ & ___.
straight one in ASIS & a reflected one that reflects in semilunar fashion over acetabulum
The _____ tendon of the rectus femoris is the oldest embryologically.
reflected tendon
The pex anserine attach into _______ & help _____.
medial portion of proximal tibia; reinforce & strengthen medial knee joint
The ____, _____, & ____ form the pes anserine by interdigitating w/eachother.
SGSt--Sartorius; gracilis; semitendinosis
A deep special portion of the vastus intermedius is called the _______.
articularis genu
The articularis genu doesn't attach into tibia, but rather into ___.
capsule surrounding knee joint
The articularis genu attaches into _____ portion of the capsule, called _____.
superior; suprapatella bursa
The purpose of the articularis genu attaching into the suprapatella bursa is ______.
it contracts milliseconds before full knee extention, pulling suprapatella bursa out so it can't be pinched b/tw femur & knee
_______ is for the attachment of the IT BAND/TRACT.
Gerdy's tubercle
The ______ attaches into IT tract (eventually into Gerdy's tubercle).
tensor fascia lata
Borders of femoral triangle:
superior:_____, lateral:___, medial:______.
S:inguinal ligament; L:medial aspect of sartorius; M:lateral aspect of adductor longus
Femoral triangle contents are: ___, ___, ___, ___.
NAVL-Nerve, Artery, Vein, Lymphatics
The femoral artery can be found 1/2 way between what 2 structures?
ASIS & pubic symphisis
DEEP to sartorious, the order of NAVL is:
LATERAL to MEDIAL
The vessels & branches of the femoral nerve travel to apex of triangle, they run deep to the sart. into _____.
adductor canal (subsartorial canal)
Two branches of the femoral nerve are ____ & ____.
nerve to vastus medialis; saphenous nerve
The ______ is the longest nerve in the body.
saphenous nerve
The saphenous nerve runs along with the ________. It is a ______ of femoral n.
saphenous vein; cutaneous branch
Adductor canal borders: Anterolateral:____; Medially (roof): ____; Posteriorly: ______
Anterolateral: vastus med.; Posterior: adductor longus & magnus; Medially: sartorius
The adductor canal carries: ________, _____, ____, & ____
femoral NAVL; saphenous nerve; nerve to vastus medialis; cutaneous branch of obturator nerve
The protrusion of fascia (iliopsoas & transversalis) form the _________.
femoral sheath
The femoral sheath runs out with _____ about 3 cm into thigh & then fuses w/adventitia.
femoral vessels (artery & nerve)& lymph node
The femoral sheat is located DEEP to _________.
inguinal ligament
The femoral nerve rests on the _______.
iliopsoas
The _____ separates femoral NERVE from the vessels (in femoral ring).
iliopectineal arch (band of fascia tissue)
The femoral canal holds the ________.
lymphatic chain of thigh
The medial border of the femoral ring is the _______.
lacunar ligament
The pectineus helps form boundary of ________.
femoral ring
The lymph node that sits just inside femoral ring is called _____.
node of cloacae
The node of cloacae is one of 3 ________.
deep inguinal nodes
Scarpa's triangle borders: Superior:_____; Medial:____; Inferolateral:______
S:inguinal ligament; M: adductor longus; IL:sartorios
The femoral nerve passes ____ to inguinal ligament and then does what?
INFERIOR; splays into many little branches (cauda equina of lower limb)
The femoral sheath is a prolongation of _____ over proximl portion of fem. vess.
pelvic fascia
The great saphenous vein penetrates femoral sheath to drain into ________.
external iliac vein
The fascia lata of the leg is fused on the _______ of inguinal ligament.
UNDERSIDE
Femoral branches of the ______ nerve supply skin ____ to femoral triangle.
genitofemoral; SUPERFICIAL
There're lots of superficial inguinal lymph nodes located ____ to fascia lata.
SUPERFICIAL
The lymphatic chain for NAVL is composed of _____ lymph nodes ____ to fascia lata.
1-3; DEEP
The femoral artery arises from __________.
external pudendal artery
The most proximal lymph node is the ________.
node of clocae
The cutaneous nerves of the anterior thigh are primarily from ___________.
lateral femoral cutaneous & femoral nerve
The lateral cutaneous nerve is a direct branch of _____.
lumbar plexus
The femoral nerve is a direct branch off the ____ and gives off ___ & ____.
lumbar plexus; medial & intermediate cutaneous nerve
The medial thigh is mainly innervated by ______.
femoral nerve & branches (medial & intermediate cutaneous nerves)
There are 2 other nerves that just touch in the medial thigh: ___ & ___.
femoral branch of genitofemoral; anterior branch of obturator
The femoral branch of the genitofemoral nerves supplies ______.
proximal part of thigh
The anterior branch of the obturator nerve supplies ___.
area just proximal to knee
The saphenous nerve is the ____ branch of _____ nerve.
cutaneous; femoral
What does the saphenous nerve with respect to the adductor hiatus?
leaves early & runs through PES ANSERINE
Once the saphenous leaves add. hiatus and runs through pes anserine, it gives off ______ that supplies _____.
1st major branch (INFRAPATELLAR branch); skin inferior to patella
After saphenous nerve leaves adductor hiatus early & gives off its branch, it runs with __________.
great saphenous vein
In case of femoral artery occlusion, there is an anastamosis called _______.
cruciate anastamosis
The cruciate anastamosis of fem artery involves what 4 structures?
both circumflex arteries; first perforating artery; inferior gluteal artery
The adductor magnus has 2 components: _____ & _____.
true adductor portion; descending, vertical portion
The true adductor portion of adductor magnus attaches on _______ & is innervated by ________.
proximal femur; obturator nerve
The descending adductor portion of adductor magnus attaches to _____ & forms ____.
adductor tubercle; adductor hiatus
The descending adductor portion of adductor magnus is the ____ component. What is it innervated by?
HAMSTRING; tibial nerve, part of sciatic nerve; NOT OBTURATOR!!!
The ________ innervates the hamstrings
tibial nerve
The obturator internis & obturator externis are _____ rotators of the hip.
LATERAL
You can do more _____ than ____ rotation of the hip.
LATERAL-more; internal
The perforating arteries travel between ____ & ____ to get to hamstrings.
deficits in the adductor brevis and magnus(lat side of muscle & med sideof femur)
The hamstring part of the adductor magnus attaches to ______.
adductor tubercle (medial aspect of inferior femur)
The adductor muscles are innervated by ______. Where does it come from?
obturator--L2-L4
The obturator nerve splits ______ (when?).
soon after exiting the obturator foramen
The ANTERIOR branch of the obturator supplies ____, ___, & _____.
gracilis; adductor longus & brevis
The POSTERIOR branch of the obturator supplies ____ & maybe _____.
adductor magnus and MAYBE brevis
Which nerves innervate both the hip and knee joints?
obturator & femoral
The ______ branch of the obturator nerve innervates the hip.
anterior
The ______ branch of the obturator nerve innervates the knee.
posterior
The ______ branch innervates the skin in the medial thigh.
ANTERIOR
If you have an obturator hernia, where can the referred pain be?
medial thigh & medial knee
What can the pectineus be innervated by?
obturator; accessory obturator; femoral, or a combo of the forementioned
The Howship Romberg sign is _________ pain from _______.
medial knee pain or pain or sensory deficit in middle medial thigh
Someone could present Howship Romberg sign from ___.
obturator nerve compression (like from obturator hernia)
Knee pain could be from a herniated disc (nucleus pulposos) that impinges ____?
L2, L3, or L4 (messes with obturator nerve, so sends referred pain to knee or medial thigh)
Knee pain could be referred and coming from _____ or ____.
obturator hernia; herniated nucleus pulposus
The quads and sartorius are innervated by ______.
femoral nerve
The tensor fascia lata is in anterior compartment of leg, but is innervated by __.
superior gluteal nerve