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63 Cards in this Set

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Nervous System is organized into two classifications, what are they?
Structural classification and
Functional classification
Structural classification consists of what two systems?
Central Nervous System (CNS)
and
Peripheral Nervous System (PNS)
CNS - Central Nervous System
is made up of ?
The brain and spinal cord
PNS - Peripheral Nervous System is made up of?
"Everything Else" outside of the CNS, consists mainly of nerve bundles.
Functional classification consists of what two divisions?
Sensory (Afferent) Division
and
Motor (Efferent) Division
Motor (Efferent) Division has two systems, which are?
Somatic Nervous System
and
Autonomic Nervous System
Afferent / sensory
Sensory information to the brain or visceral information

(carrying toward the CNS)
Efferent / motor
From the brain to the nerves; voluntary and involuntary

(carrying away from the CNS)
Voluntary
Skeletal, somatic nervous system.
Involuntary
ANS. Sympathetic and Parasympathetic
Sensory Input
Sensory receptors gathers info

(your driving and you see a red light ahead)
Integration
processes and interprets sensory input and decides what should be done. (Red means Stop)
Motor Output
The response.

(Your foot goes for the brake)
Nervous System has 3 overlapping functions, what are they?
Sensory Input, integration, and motor output.
Levels of organization in the nervous system.(Motor (efferent) division of PNS.
CNS to PNS to Motor(efferent) division to Somatic nervous system or Autonomic nervous system(ANS). If to ANS its either Sympathetic division or Parasympathetic division.
The somatic nervous system is often referred to as?
The voluntary nervous system.
The autonomic nervous system is often referred to as?
The involuntary nervous system.
What is the somatic nervous system composed of?
Somatic motor nerve fibers (axons) that conduct impulses from the CNS to skeletal muscles.
What does the autonomic nervous system consist of?
Visceral motor nerve fibers that regulate the activity of smooth muscles, cardiac muscles, and glands.
Sympathetic division
Stress. Flight or Fight.
Mobilizes body systems during emergency situations.
Parasympathetic division
Resting & Digesting.
Conserves energy.
Promotes nonemergency functions.
Levels of organization in the nervous system.[Sensory (afferent) division of PNS.]
Sensory (afferent) division to the PNS to the CNS.
Give examples of what the ANS controls... (3)
Cardiac muscles.
Smooth muscles.
Glands.
What two principal types of cells make up Nervous Tissue?
Supporting cells and neurons.
Neuroglia / Glial cells
Nerve glue. Small cells associated with neurons.
How many types of Neuroglia in the nervous system?
Six.
How many types of Neuroglia in the Central nervous system?
Name them...
Four.
Astrocytes, microglia, ependymal cells, and oligodendrocytes.
How many types of Neuroglia in the Peripheral nervous system?
Name them...
Two.
Satalite cells and Schwann cells
Astrocytes
Star cells. most abundant and versatile. Make exchanges between capillaries and neurons.

*they don't like dopamine.
Microglia
Small ovoid cells with relatively long "thorny" processes. Their processes monitor the health of neurons.
Ependymal cells
"wrapping garment", range from columnar to squamous and many are ciliated. Keeps spinal fluid flowing.
Oligodendrocyte
"Few branches",produce or secrete myelin for insulation.
What is the insulated coverings in the CNS called?
Myelin Sheaths.
Satellite cells
"moons(satellites) around a planet". Surround neuron cell bodies within ganglia, but their function is still unknown.
Schwann cells
AKA: neurolemmocytes. Surround and form myelin sheaths around the larger nerve fibers in the PNS. Similar to the oligodendrocytes in the CNS.**Vital to regeneration of peripheral nerve fibers.
Sensory receptors
are specialized to respond to changes in their environment.
Mechanoreceptors
Mechanical forces stretching, that alter membrane permeability.
Thermoreceptors
Sensitive to temperature. Radiant (heat) energy.
Photoreceptors
Respond to light energy. Retina of the eye.
Chemoreceptors
Responds to chemicals in a solution (molecules smelled or tasted, or changes in blood chemistry)
Phonoreceptors
Responds to sound waves.
Nociceptors / Noci-receptors
Respond to damaging stimuli that result in pain. Naked dendrites of skin (epidermis).
Osmo-receptors
Monitor the bloods osmotic pressure.
Exteroceptors
Are sensitive to stimuli arising outside the body. (touch, pressure, pain, and temperature)
Interoceptors
AKA: visceroceptors.
Respond to stimuli within the body. (internal viscera and blood vessels)
Proprioceptors
Like interoceptors, they respond to internal stimuli. However, they occur in skeletal muscles, tendons, joints, and ligaments.
Simple receptors
Modified dendritic endings of sensory neurons.
Complex receptors
Sense organs associated with special senses (vision, hearing, smelling, tasting, and equilibrium).
Mixed nerves
Nerves containing the processes of motor and sensory neurons; their impulses travel to and from the central nervous system.
Sensory nerve cell
an initiator of nerve impulses following receptor stimulation
Neuron
Cell of the nervous system specialized to generate and transmit nerve impulses.
L-Dopa
Stimulates dopamine production, used in parkinsons disease patients.
Manos
A sugar used to trick astrocytes.
What do Astrocytes dislike?
Dopamine
What is the Synaptic Cleft space equal to?
10-100 Angstroms
What are the components of synapse?
Presynaptic neuron
Synapse / Synaptic Cleft
Postsyanptic neuron
Neuroglia
Nonexcitable cells of neural tissue that support, protect, and insulate the neurons.
What are the two types of synapses?
Chemical and electrical.
Microglial cell / phagocyte
Microglial cell in the CNS and Phagocyte/Macrophage in the PNS.
Cemented neuron
Stays in place.
Plastic neuron
Move around.
Factor
We know it exists but we don't know what it does.
How often are new Olfactory neurons made?
Every 60 days.