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74 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Day and Night
-day and night is part of our daily cycle
-result of Earths rotation on its axis
-North and South Pole have 6 months of day and 6 months of night
Astronomy
the study of objects beyond Earth and its atmosphere
Apparent Motion
the motion of objects in the solar system that looks like to movement of the sun is real but really it is that Earth is revolving around the sun and it makes it look like to sun moves
Celestial Objects
things that are seen in the sky that are outside of Earths atmosphere
Altitude
the angle above the horizon
zenith
-Altitude starts at level horizon (0 degrees) and increase to 90 degrees in the sky (the zenith)
-sun is never at the zenith except for observers located at Tropic of Capricorn (23.5S) and Tropic of Cancer
(23.5N)
Local Solar
is the time at which the sun reaches the highest point in the sky
Season Facts
-March 21st is the spring equinox. There is 12 hours of day and night. This is where the earth is at the top part of the season diagram
Seasons Facts-2
-June 21st is the summer solstice. This is where there is 15 hours of day and 9 hours of night. Longest period of rotation. This is located at the left side of the seasons diagram.
Seasons Facts-3
-September 21st is the fall equinox. This is where there is equal night and equal day. This is located at the bottom of the seasons diagram.
Seasons Facts-4
-December 21st is the winter solstice. This is at the right of the diagram.
Seasons Facts-5
-The sun usually rises in the east and sets in the west. However, the sun rises north of east when the days are longest in spring and summer and south of east during the short days of fall and winter.
-The direction of both sunrise and sunset moves northward along the horizon as the days get longer in winter and spring. When the days get shorter, the sunrise and sunset position move southward.
-The noon sun is highest in the summer and lowest in the winter.
-When noon sun is highest, the days are longest.
Earths Info.
-period of rotation is 15 degrees an hour
Geocentric Model
-solar system model where other planets, stars, universe, and sun orbit the Earth
-wrong model
Heliocentric Model
-solar system where planets, Earth, stars, etc. revolve around the sun
-right model
revolution
the motion of the planets in their orbits around the sun
Rotation
spin on earths axis.
Things that cause seasons
-tilt
-parallelism
-revolution
Foucault Pendulum
-pendulum that works because the pendulum swings the same plane as the Earth rotates beneath it
-knocks over pins
Coriolis Effect
-proof earth rotates because wind in the Northern Hemisphere curve to their right as the move out of high pressure systems
Earths rotation appears:
from north pole: rotates counterclockwise
from south pole: rotates clockwise
Vertical Rays
is sunlight that strikes Earths surface at an angle of 90 degrees
Artic Circle
lattitude 66.5N
Antarctic Circle
lattitude 66.5S
Two types of landscapes on the moon:
-lunar highlands
-maria
Satellite
an object in space that revolves around another object under the influence of gravity
Our moons period of roatation and revolution
27.3 days (about the same)
Ellipse
a closed curve formed around two fixd points such that the total distance between any point on the curve and the fixed points is constant.
Eccentricity
how elongated the ellipse is
(eccuntricity= distance betwen foci divded by length of major axis)
major axis
the distance across the ellipse measured at its widest points
Inertia
is the tendency of an object at rest to remain at rest or an object in motion to move at a constant speed in a straight line unless acted o by an unbalanced force
Gravity
the force of attractino between all object
Weight
is the force of attraction between your body and earth
Kinetic Energy
is the speed of earth in its orbit
major axis
the distance across the ellipse measured at its widest points
Inertia
is the tendency of an object at rest to remain at rest or an object in motion to move at a constant speed in a straight line unless acted o by an unbalanced force
Gravity
the force of attractino between all object
Weight
is the force of attraction between your body and earth
Kinetic Energy
is the speed of earth in its orbit
terrestrial planets
group of planets that rae solid objects with thin/no atmosphere
Jovian planets
group of planets that are lessdense, larger, mainly composed of gases
asteriods
irregularly shaped rocky masses that are smaller than planets
comets
visible in the night sky as a small spot of light with a long tail that points away from the sun
meteoroid
meteor
meteorite
chunks of stuff
shooting star
hits earth
siderial month
27.3 days (amount of time for revolution of Earths moon)
lunar month
29.5 days (amount of time for revolution of Earths moons)
moon phrases
gibbous
full moon
cresent
new moon
quater
DOC
shape of quater moons (3 quater moons)
tides
daily cycle of change in sea level
tidal range
difference between the lowest water level and the highest water level
spring tide
when earth, sun, and moon are in a linewith one another, where the highest tides occur
neap tides
the range of the tides is the lowest when the sun and moon are at right angles to earth
eclipse
when one cestial object blocks the light of another
total eclipse
when the sun is completely blocked from view as the region of full shadow passes over Earth
Lunar Eclipse
occurs when at the full moon phase because the moon must be on the side opposite of earth
solar eclipse
when the moon is at the new moon position and blocks the light from the sun
umbra
full shadow
penumbra
partial shadow
star
a massive object in space that creates energy and radiates it as electromagnetic radiation
E=mc^2
Electricity equals mass times speed of light squared
nuclear fusion
process by which light elements join to make heavier elements
luminosity
absolute brightness
Red Dwarf Stars
-smallest stars
-bearly large enough to support nuclear fusion
Blue SuperGiants Stars
-massive stars
-extremly hot
Star Formation
-begins when a cloud of dust (neablea) draw together under the influence of gravity
-materials accrete together to form stars
Death of an Average Star
-the star runs low on hydrogen
-fusions slows
-outer shell of gases expands and cools in the red giant stage leaving behind a dense hot core which is a white dwarf star
spectroscope
tools that separates light into coponent colors
galaxies
huge groups of stars held together by gravity
Milky Star Galaxy
-galaxy earth is in
-all the individual stars visible to us in the night sky are part of this group
lightyear
the distance that any form of electromagnetic energy can travel in 1 year
redshift
the motion of distant galaxies away from earth cause spectral lines (redshift)
Doppler Effect
the apparent change in frequency and wavelength of energy that occurs when the source of a wave is moving relative to an observer
cosmic background radiation
weak electromagnetic readiation left over from the formation of the universe
big bang
theory proposes that at the time of tis origin the universe was a concentration of matter so dense that the laws of nature as we know them today did not apply

began 14 million years ago