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36 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Water Structure
H 0
2
Attraction between Water Molecules
Oxygen and Hydrogen
Sublimation
changing from gas to solid or solid to gas
When water changes from gas to liquid to solid energy need to be _____________
released or given off
if water is in a solid liquid or vapor phase the temperature will increase as heat energy is absorbed
If the water is in the process of changing state, temperature will remain constant as heat energy is absorbed.
Solid State to Liquid State
80 calories must be supplied
Liquid state to solid state
80 calories must be released
liquid state to a vapor state
540 calories supplied
vapor state to a liquid state
540 calories released
Transpiration
process of water given to atmosphere from plant
Evapotranspiraton process
-requires 540 calories/gram to change liquid to water vapor(latent heat of vaporazation)
-almost all of the energy is supplied by insolation.
-solar energy is converted to a stored energy or potential energy
The more energy that is available, the ________ the temperature will be and the evaporation will take place more _______.
1. higher
2. quickly
The larger the surface area is the _________ the rate of evaporation.
1. faster
The higher the water content of the air, the ______ the relative humidity. If the air is very close to being saturated, the evaporation rate will be ______.
1. higher
2. slow
The ________ the speed of the wind, the more air replacement occurs and the rate of evaporation increases.
1. faster
Cloud Formation
-moisture (water vapor)
-temperatures below dewpoint
-condensation nuclei
If all three conditions met in the troposphere and the temperature is ____________________ then small water droplets will condense to form a cloud
delow the dewpoint but greater than 0 degrees C
If all three conditions are bet in the troposphere, and the temperature is ______________ then small ice crystals will form a cloud
below the dewpoint and o degress C or less
What are some events that can decrease the amount of aerosols in the atmosphere?
percipitation
If the atmospheric transparency is low, what will happen to incoming solar radiation?
it will be scattered
Rain
>0.2 mm
Drizzle
0.2-0.5 mm
Snow
falling ice crystals
Sleet
Solid pellets of ice that form by freezing of rain drops as they fall
Hail
layers of ice, snow, and water formed by movements of thunderstorm clounds
Infilration
precipitation can seep
Runoff
percipiation can flow accoss
Zone of saturation
when water infiltrates the ground it is pulled down by gravity
Water table
-top of the zone of saturation
-seperates zone of saturation and aeration
Zone of aeration
-region above the water table extending to earths surface that contains little to no stored water in pore spaces
Capillary
some amount of water stops moving downward due to the attractive forces between particles and surrounding Earths materials during infiltration
Smaller the pores _____
greater the attractive force between water particles
Surface runoff is _____ when pore space is blocked or saturated with water
higher
Surface runoff is ____ when the slope of the surface is too steep to allow infiltration
higher
Surface runoff is ________ when the rate of percipitation exceeds the infiltration rate
higher
Movement of ground water
-capillary action can pull water up toward earths surface where it can be absorbed
-slow exaporation can occur through zone of aeration
-can seep to lower elevations