Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/27

Click to flip

27 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What is the main neurobio. problem with schizophrenia?
Incorrect modulation of dopamine...so most of the candidate genes should focus on this
What are the candidate genes of schizophrenia? Where are all these genes focused?
COMT on 22. Neuregulin on 8. Dysbindin on 6. DISC1 on 1.

Genes are focused at synaptic transmission.
What does COMT do and what chromosome is it located on?

(shizo)
COMT on 22 breaks down dopamine. In schizophrenic patients can be 3-4x more active. Affects PFC function.
Etiology of schizophrenia
Genetic and environmental risks (intrauterine/perinatal)...FLU INFECTION IS BIG!

Urban has higher rates than rural for shizo's.
What is one of the biggest risks for schizo during pregnancy?
FLU
What is PFC's role in shizophrenia?
PFC used to register conflict, handle stresses as adolescent. PFC deficits can produce negative symptoms.

PFC deficit causes increased mesolimbic activity. This increase in DA can lead to POSTIVE symptoms.
What is DISC1 role in schizophrenia?
DISC1 on chromosome 1. Involved in neuronal migration. Mutations in DISC1 lead to aberrant migration.
2 take home points of schizophrenia in neurobio?
1) Brain is miswired during neuronogenesis

2) Candidate genes are focused on synaptic transmission
What is the main target of anti-psychotics?
Antipsychotics look to bind to D2 receptors and decrease dopamine transmission. TARGETED AT REDUCING POSITIVE SYMPTOMS.
What is the glutamate hypothesis in schizophrenia?
NMDA glutamate receptors antagonists mimic POSTIVE AND NEGATIVE sxs of schizophrenia. If the NMDA block occurs at GLUTAMINERGIC interneuron, this could result in Glutaminergic HYPERACTIVITY, resulting in INCREASED DOPAMINE...POSITIVE SYMPTOMS.

NMDA hypomorphs can show locomotion abnormalities.
What does an NMDA antagonist cause positive and negative symptoms of schizo?
Positive symptoms if NMDA antagonist binds to GLU interneuron, which would lead to increase GLU --> increase DA --> positive symptoms

negative systems if antagonist binds to activating NMDA receptor.
What do we see in grey and white matter in schizophrenia?
TAKE HOME = neurons are miswired in patients. Disturbed connectivity. EXAMPLE: patients shown square don't respond properly to seeing the square.
Progressive grey matter loss.

In total, there is some brain atrophy in the schizophrenic patient.
How do schizophrenics do in "prepulse" test?
even with pre-pulse, schizos are startled. normal patients would not be startled because of pre-pulse

NEUREGULIN?
What is dysbindin's capacity in schizophrenia.
Dysbindin is expressed during hippocampal formation.
Patients with higher levels of dopamine at base-line have better/worse prognosis?
Higher baseline levels should respond BEST to meds.
What are some anatomical changes to the brain?
Enlarged ventricles, decrease total brain volume, changes in white matter (disturbances in connectivity/ miswiring ... PROGRESSIVE!)
Why is it important to prevent relapse?
Relapses will lead to damage in the brain. IMPORTANT TO PREVENT RELAPSE
What are the positive symptoms of schizophrenia?
Delusions / hallucinations
What are the diagnostic criteria for schizophrenia?
more than 2 of the following for more than 1 month:

Positive symptoms, disorganized thoughts, disorganized speech, negative symptoms (flat affect, not talking, etc)
What region in particular is affecting during schizophrenic?
Limbic systems! There is dopaminergic systems there (mesolimbic!)
Etiology of schizophrenia...
Onset: 15-35.

Degree of education / level of function pre-schizo is directly related w/ prognosis

Later onset in women.

Later and more abrupt onsets have best prognosis. There is prodrome (can be abrupt or insidious)

Some bizarre behaviors...thought disorders (echollalia, incomprehensible, vague circumstantial speech)
What are negative symptoms of shizophrenia?
Much more prevalent, particularly prodromal or residual.

Disturbed affect...inappropriate affect, flat affect, no eye contact. Could be mute, thought blocking, lack of content in speech. Long latency.
Comorbidities related to shizophrenia?
Depression BIG. Mania. Cognitive dysfunction (temporal lobe/frontal lobe)
What are the four types of schizophrenia?
Paranoid - Prominent positive symptoms. RELATIVE LACK OF negative symptoms (therefore better prognosis)

Disorganized - Inappropriate or flat affect. Disorganized speech, behavior. PROMINENT NEGATIVE SYMPTOMS = PFC mysfunction = WORSE PROGNOSIS

Catatonic = FEW positive symptoms. Abnormal posturing/motor. Echolalia/ praxia.

Undifferentiated = most common. Mix of positive and negative symptoms.
What do the atypicals and typicals do in schizo?
Both target dopaminergic transmission to frontal and temporal lobes.

Atypicals better at treating negative symptoms (depression, fewer side effects)
What is NMS?`
Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome caused by adverse rxn to antipsychotics.

Fever, cognitive impairment, muscle rigidity. CPK may appear in blood testing bc of excess muscle activity.
What is tardive dyskenisia?
Neurological deficit that can occur as a result of affecting DA nigrostriatal pathway.

Happens when L-Dopa plasma levels are at peak.