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21 Cards in this Set

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What is the atp difference between glycolysis of anaerobe or aerobe?
Anaerobic glycosis gives you 2 ATP, Aerobic glycosis gives you 8 ATP.
What is the allosteric inhibitor and key enzyme of the Pentose Phosphate Pathway?
Allosteric Inhibitor is NADPH and the Key enzyme is glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase.
What is the enzyme if phosphorylated leads to cholesterol synthesis inhibition?
HMG CoA reductase
What key enzyme of citric acid cycle can be inhibited by Acetyl CoA and NADH?
Pyruvate dehyrdogenase
What are the most potent androgens and estrogens examples?
Androgens out of all of them Testosterone, and Estrogens out of all of them Estradiol.
What steroid synthesis enzyme carries pregnenolone to progesterone?
3b hydroxylase.
What cell is the major producer of testosterone and what is the enzyme?
Major producer of testosterone is Leydig Cells and aromatase enzyme takes Androstenedione to Testosterone.
What is the active form of Testosterone in the periphery?
Dihydrotestosterone.
What is the major function of the Ovary (Theca cells)?
To produce Androstenedione so that Estradiol can be later produced by the Granulosa cells. Also produces Testosterone.
What ovary cell produces Estradiol/Estrone?
Granulosa Cells.
Estrogen to Estriol happens where in females?
It is peripheral metabolism.
What does the corpus luteum produce?
Progesterone
What occurs in males/females with 17 alpha hydroxylase deficiency?
Males you get ambigious genitalia and females you get ammenorrhea at puberty.
Most common defect of cortiocoid synthesis that results in salt-wasting and males/females with increased DHEA?
21 alpha hydroxylase deficiency.
What accumulates due to a lack of 11 beta hydroxylase causing salt retention symptoms: hypertension and also seen is hypokalemia?
Deoxycorticosterone which has mineralocorticoid action.
Cortisol does what to fat and sugar?
It increases blood sugar levels and build-up glycogen stores at the expense of fat and protein.
AZT (zidovudine) can be incorporated into HIV DNA what does it happen that stops further elongation of HIV DNA?
3 nitrogen bonded togther instead of OH which is what Thymidine has.
What starts the de novo synthesis process of purines in the liver?
Phosphoribosyl pyrophosphate which is converted to IMP which is then converted to AMP or GMP
What are the beginning processes of de novo synthesis of pryimidines in the liver?
Glutamine to carbmoyl phosphate to OMP to UMP.
What happens in the operon when the repressor binds to the operator?
RNA-polymerase doesn't activate the promoter and expression of genes is turned off.
Where does the transcription factor bind in Eukaryotes that without it would result in non-function of RNA polymerase (I mean without transcription factor).
TATA BOX

FYI Eukaryotes don't have an operon, prokaryotes do.