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450 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
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fervor
N.
growing ardor; intensity or feeling.
ricky sucks
inert
ADJ.
inactive; lacking power to move.
illusory
ADJ.
deceptive; not real.
abrasive
rubbing away; tending to grind down.

Just as abrasive cleaning powders can wear away a shiny finish, abrasive remarks can wear away a listener's patience.
divergent
ADJ.
differing; deviating.
discriminating
ADJ.
able to see differences; prejudiced.
ignominy
N.
deep disgrace; shame or dishonor.
acclaim
applaud; announce with great approval.

The NBC sportscasters acclaimed every American victory in the Olympics and lamented every American defeat.
futile
ADJ.
ineffective; fruitless.
didactic
teaching; instructional.
illicit
ADJ.
illegal.
abstruse
obscure; profound; difficult to understand.

She carries around abstruse works of philosophy, not because she understands them but because she wants her friends to think she does.
distant
ADJ.
reserved or aloof; cold in manner.
dismiss
V.
put away from consideration; reject.
illuminate
V.
brighten; clear up or make understandable; enlighten.
accolade
award of merit.

In the world of public relations, a "Clio" is the highest accolade an advertising campaign can receive.
founder
N.
person who establishes (an organization, business).
disseminate
V.
distribute; spread; scatter (like seeds).
immune
ADJ.
resistant to; free or exempt from.
enigma
N.
puzzle; mystery.
accessible
easy to approach; obtainable.

We asked our guide whether the ruins were accessible on foot.
exemplify
V.
serve as an example of; embody.
discursive
ADJ.
digressing; rambling.
imbalance
N.
lack of balance or symmetry; disproportion.
aberrant
abnormal or deviant.

Given the aberrant nature of the data, we came to doubt the validity of the entire experiment.
forthright
ADJ.
outspoken; frank.
discerning
mentally quick and observant; having insight.
immaculate
ADJ.
spotless; flawless; absolutely clean.
abridge
condense or shorten.

Because the publishers felt the public wanted a shorter version of War and Peace, they proceeded to abridge the novel.
euphemism
N.
mild expression used in place of an unpleasant one.
incline
N.
slope; slant.
immutable
ADJ.
unchangeable.
abate
subside or moderate.

Rather than leaving immediately, they waited for the storm to abate.
galvanize
V.
stimulate by shock; stir up; revitalize.
deride
ridicule; make fun of.
insuperable
ADJ.
insurmountable; unbeatable.
abstemious
sparing in eating and drinking; temperate.

Concerned whether her vegetarian son's abstemious diet provided him with sufficient protein, the worried mother pressed food on him.
euphoria
N.
feeling of great happiness and well-being (sometimes exaggerated).
deprecate
express disapproval of; protest against; belittle.
inopportune
ADJ.
untimely; poorly chosen.
absolute
complete; totally unlimited; certain.

Although the King of Siam was an absolute monarch, he didn't want to behead his unfaithful wife without absolute evidence of her infidelity.
forsake
V.
desert; abandon; renounce.
dispel
V.
drive away; scatter; cause to vanish.
insularity
N.
narrow-mindedness; isolation.
abstract
theoretical; not concrete; nonrepresentational.

To him, hunger was an abstract concept; he never missed a meal.
eclectic
ADJ.
selective in choosing from a variety of sources.
despot
tyrant; harsh, authoritarian ruler.
insolvent
ADJ.
bankrupt; unable to repay one's debts.
disparage
V.
belittle.
forestall
V.
prevent by taking action in advance.
devise
think up; invent; plan.
infamous
ADJ.
notoriously bad.
dissipate
V.
squander; waste; scatter.
endorse
V.
approve; support.
despondent
depressed; gloomy.
infiltrate
V.
pass into or through; penetrate (an organization) sneakily.
diligence
steadiness of effort; persistant hard work.
foresight
N.
ability to foresee future happenings; prudence.
disputatious
ADJ.
argumentative; fond of arguing.
insatiable
ADJ.
not easily satisfied; greedy.
depravity
corruption; wickedness.
emulate
V.
imitate; rival.
discount
V.
disregard.
insinuate
V.
hint; imply; creep in.
disinclination
N.
unwillingness.
founder
V.
fail completely; sink.
dissonance
N.
clashing or unresolved chords(as in music).
initiate
V.
begin; originate; receive into a group.
detrimental
harmful; damaging.
expedient
ADJ.
suitable to achieve a particular end; practical; politic.
diffuse
wordy; rambling; spread out.
instigate
V.
urge; start; provoke.
disdain
V.
view with scorn or contempt.
flippant
ADJ.
lacking proper seriousness.
indigenous
ADJ.
native.
insipid
ADJ.
lacking flavor; dull.
disband
dissolve; disperse.
duration
N.
length of time something lasts.
disinterested
ADJ.
unprejudiced.
inexorable
ADJ.
relentless; unyielding; implacable.
detached
emotionally removed; calm and objective; indifferent.
foolhardy
ADJ.
rash; heedless.
discrepancy
N.
lack of consistency; difference.
inimical
ADJ.
unfriendly; hostile; harmful; detrimental.
dissent
V.
disagree.
egotistical
ADJ.
excessively self-centered; self-important; conceited.
hyperbole
N.
exaggeration; overstatement.
infinitesimal
ADJ.
exceedingly small; so small as to be almost nonexistent.
derivative
unoriginal; derived from another source.
foster
V.
rear; encourage; nurture.
disclose
reveal.
innate
ADJ.
inborn.
discredit
V.
defame; destroy confidence in; disbelieve.
digression
wandering away from the subject.
infraction
N.
violation (od a rule or regulation); breach.
devious
roundabout; erratic; not straightforward.
flagrant
ADJ.
conspicuously wicked; blatant; outrageous.
discordant
ADJ.
not harmonious; conflicting.
intangible
ADJ.
not material; not able to be perceived by touch; vague; elusive.
inequity
N.
unfairness.
extant
ADJ.
still in existence.
deterrent
something that discourages; hindrance.
ingenious
ADJ.
clever; resourceful.
dismantle
V.
take apart.
frivolous
ADJ.
lacking in seriousness; self-indulgently carefree; relatively unimportant.
dissuade
V.
advise against.
ingrate
N.
ungrateful person.
diminution
lessening; reduction in size.
expertise
N.
specialized knowledge; expert skill.
disperse
V.
cause to break up; scatter.
innovation
N.
change; introduction of something new.
disparity
N.
difference; condition of inequality.
fundamental
V.
basic; primary; essential.
dispassionate
ADJ.
calm; impartial.
inherent
ADJ.
firmly established by nature or habit; intrinsic.
analogy
similarity; parallelism.

A well-known analogy compares the body's immune system to an army whose defending troops are the lymphocytes or white blood cells.
extraneous
ADJ.
not essential; superfluous.
consistency
absence of contradictions; dependability; uniformity; degree of thickness.
insurgent
ADJ.
rebellious.
ample
abundant.

Bond had ample opportunity to escape. Why did he let us catch him?
fickle
ADJ.
changeable; faithless.
coercion
use of force to get someone's compliance.
infer
V.
deduce; conclude.
anarchist
person who seekd to overturn the established government; advocate of abolishing authority.

Denying she was an anarchist, Katya maintained she wished only to make changes in our government, not to destroy it entirely.
duplicity
N.
double-dealing; hypocrisy.
incongruous
ADJ.
not fitting; absurd.
intervene
V.
come between.
incidental
ADJ.
not essential; minor.
furtive
ADJ.
stealthy; sneaky.
constraint
compulsion; repression of feelings.
insightful
ADJ.
discerning; perceptive.
archaic
antiquated.

"Methinks," "thee," and "thou" are archaic words that are no longer part of our standard vocabulary.
exploit
V.
make use of, sometimes unjustly.
concise
brief and compact.
intermittent
ADJ.
periodic; on and off.
incentive
N.
spur; motive.
garbled
ADJ.
mixed up; jumbled; distorted.
incoherent
ADJ.
unintelligible; muddled; illogical.
intimidate
V.
frighten.
arbitrary
unreasonable or capriciousl randomly selected w/o any reason; based solely on one's unrestricted will or judgement.

The coach claimed the team lost because the umpire made some arbitrary calls.
ebb
V.
recede; lessen.
clamor
noise.
integrity
N.
uprightnessl wholeness.
inclusive
ADJ.
tending to include all.
frugality
N.
thrift; economy.
concede
admit; yield.
intractable
ADJ.
unruly; stubborn; unyielding.
incense
V.
enrage; infuriate.
exhaustive
ADJ.
thorough; comprehensive.
incontrovertible
ADJ.
indisputable; not open to question.
integral
ADJ.
complete; necessary for completeness.
inclined
ADJ.
tending or leaning toward; bent.
fluctuate
V.
waver; shift.
compelling
overpowering; irresistable in effect.
injurious
ADJ.
harmful.
inadvertently
ADV.
by oversight; carelessly or unintentionally.
esoteric
ADJ.
hard to understand; known only to the chosen few.
inconsequential
ADJ.
insignificant; unimportant.
innoucuous
ADJ.
harmless
incite
V.
arouse to action; goad; motivate; induce to exist.
feasible
ADJ.
practical.
compile
assemble; gather; accumulate.
irreproachable
ADJ.
blameless; impeccable.
impudence
N.
impertinence; insolence.
equanimity
N.
calmness of temperment; composure.
commemorate
honor the memory of.
intrepid
ADJ.
fearless.
inane
ADJ.
silly; senseless.
florid
ADJ.
ruddy; reddish; flowery.
compliance
readiness to yield; conformity in fulfilling requirements.
intransigence
N.
refusal of any compromise; stubbornness.
incisive
ADJ.
cutting; sharp.
eulogy
N.
expression of praise, often on the occassion of someone's death.
civil
having to do with citizens or the state; courteous and polite.
irrational
ADJ.
illogical; lacking reason; insane.
inaugurate
V.
start; initiate; install in office.
fortuitous
ADJ.
accidental; by chance.
composure
mental calmness.
intricate
ADJ.
complex; knotty; tangled.
incessant
ADJ.
uninterupted; unceasing.
exuberance
N.
overflowing abundance; joyful enthusiasm; flamboyance; lavishness.
chronicle
report; record (in chronological order).
irreverence
N.
lack of proper respect.
impassive
ADJ.
without feeling; imperturbable; stoical.
figurative
ADJ.
not literal, but metaphorical; using a figure of speech.
confirm
corroborate; verify; support.
invert
V.
turn upside down or inside out.
apprehension
fear; discernment; capture.

The tourist refused to drive his rental car through downtown Miami because he felt some apprehension that he might be car-jacked.
explicit
ADJ.
totally clear; definite; outspoken.
clemency
disposition to be lenient; mildness, as of the weather.
irrelevant
ADJ.
not applicable; unrelated.
implausible
ADJ.
unlikely; unbelievable
frail
ADJ.
weak.
conciliatory
reconciling; appeasing; amiable.
irascible
ADJ.
irritable; easily angered.
implement
V.
put into effect; supply with tools.
expedite
V.
hasten.
conclusive
convincing; decisive.
jargon
N.
language used by a special group; technical terminology; gibberish.
impromptu
ADJ.
without previous preparation; off the cuff; on the spur of the moment.
denounce
condemn; criticize.
charlatan
quack; pretender to knowledge.

When they realized that the Wizard didn't know how to get them back to Kansas, Dorothy and her companions were indignant that they'd been duped by a charlatan.
irresolute
ADJ.
uncertain how to act; weak.
impoverished
ADJ.
poor.
exacting
ADJ.
extremely demanding.
concur
agree in opinion.
jocular
ADJ.
said or done in jest; joking.
implicit
ADJ.
understood but not stated.
converge
approach; tend to meet; come together.
condone
overlook voluntarily; forgive.
arid
dry; barren.

The cactus has adapted to survive in an arid environment.
impartial
ADJ.
not biased; fair.
erroneous
ADJ.
mistaken; wrong.
comprehensive
thorough; inclusive.
intuition
N.
immediate insight; power of knowing without reasoning.
antagonistic
hostile; opposed.

Despite his lawyer's best efforts to stop him, the angry prisoner continued to make antagonistic remarks to the judge.
ineffectual
ADJ.
not effective; weak.
conflagration
great fire.
intrinsic
ADJ.
essential; inherent; built-in; natural.
antidote
medicine to counteract a poison or disease.

When Marge's child accidentally swallowed some cleaning fluid, the local poison control hotline told Marge how to administer the antidote.
extol
V.
praise; glorified.
confound
confuse; puzzle.
introspective
ADJ.
looking within oneself.
appease
pacify or soothe; relieve.

Tom and Jody tried to appease their crying baby by offering him one toy after another. However, they couldn't calm him down until they appeased his hunger by giving him a bottle.
indifferent
ADJ.
unmoved; lacking concern.
confront
face; challenge.
ironic
ADJ.
relating to a contradiction between an event's expected result and its actual outcome; sarcastic.
impecunious
ADJ.
wihtout money.
document
V.
provide written evidence.
consensus
general agreement.
ardor
heat; passion; zeal.

Katya's ardor was catching; soon all her fellow demostrators were busily making posters and handing out flyers, inspired by her enthusiasm for the cause.
antiquated
old-fashioned; obsolete.

Philip had grown so accustomed to editing his articles on word processors that he thought typewriters were too antiquated for him to use.
indulge
V.
humor; treat leniently.
conscientious
scrupulous; careful.
arrogance
pride; haughtiness.

Convinced that Emma thought she was better than anyone else in the class, Ed rebuked her for her arrogance.
impervious
ADJ.
impenetrable; incapable of being damaged or distressed.
dubious
ADJ.
doubtful; questionable.
imperious
ADJ.
domineering; haughty.
inundate
V.
overwhelm; flood; submerge.
antithesis
contrast; direct opposite of or to.

Good is the antithesis of evil, innocence the antithesis of guilt.
curtail
shorten; reduce.
apocryphal
untrue; made up.

To impress his friends, Ted invented apocryphal talkes of his adventures in the big city.
ascendancy
controlling influence.

Leaders of religious cults maintain ascendancy over their followers by methods that can verge on brain-washing.
contagion
infection.
hardy
ADJ.
sturdy; robust; able to stand inclement weather.
appreciate
be thankful for; increase in worth; be thoroughly concious of.

Little Orphan Annie truly appreciated the stocks Daddy Warbucks gave her, which appreciated in value considerably over the years.
elusive
ADJ.
evasive; baffling; hard to grasp.
animosity
active enmity.

By advocating cuts in campaign spending and limits on congressional powers, the reform candidate almost seemed to invite the animosity of the party's leaders.
astute
wise; shrewd.

Expecting Miss Marple to be a woolly-headed old lady, Inspector Craddock was startled by the astute observations she made.
apathy
lack of caring; indifference.

A firm believer in democratic government, she could not understand the apathy of people who never bothered to vote.
defiance
refusal to yield; resistance.
impeccable
ADJ.
faultless.
authentic
genuine.

The art expert was able to distinguish the authentic Van Gogh painting from the forged copy.
anecdote
short account of an amusing or interesting event.

Rather than make concrete proposals for welfare reform, President Ronald Reagan told anecdotes about poor people who became wealthy despite their impoverished backgrounds.
eloquence
N.
expressiveness; persuasive speech.
impair
V.
injure; hurt.
attentive
considerate; thoughtful; paying attention.

Thu is very attentive to her Vietnamese-speaking parents, acting as their interpreter and helping them deal with American society.
imperceptible
ADJ.
unnoticeable; undetectable.
industrious
ADJ.
diligent; hard-working.
impede
V.
hinder; block; delay.
audacious
daring; bold.

Audiences cheered as Luke Skywalker and Princess Leia made their audacious, death-defying leap to freedom, escaping Darth Vader's troops.
arable
fit for growing crops.

The first settlers wrote home glowing reports of the New World, praising its vast acres of arable land ready for the plow.
dormant
ADJ.
sleeping; lethargic; latent.
implication
N.
something hinted at or suggested.
artifact
object made by human beings, either handmade or mass-produced.

Archaeologists debated the significance of the artifacts discovered in the ruins of Asia Minor but came to no conclusion about the culture they represented.
impel
V.
drive or force onward.
cursory
casual; hastily done.
impetuous
ADJ.
violent; hasty; rash.
atrophy
waste away.

Afet three months in a cast, Stan's biceps had atrophied somewhat; however, he was sure that if he pumped iron for a while he would soon build them up.
certitude
certainty.

Though there was no certitude of his getting the job, Lou thought he had a good chance of doing so.
extricate
V.
free; disentangle.
caricature
distortion; burlesque.

The caricatures he drew always emphasized a personal weakness of the people he burlesqued.
augment
increase; add to.

Beth augmented her inadequate salary by selling Tupperware at parties at friends' homes.
censure
blame; criticize.

The senator was censured for his inappropriate behavior.
dawdle
loiter; waste time.
censorious
critical.

Censorious people delight in casting blame.
artisan
manually skilled worker; craftsman, as opposed to artist.

Elderly artisans from Italy trained Harlem teenagers to carve the stone figures that would decorate the new wing of the cathedral.
capricious
fickle; incalculable.

The storm was capricious, changing its course constantly.
eclipse
V.
darken; extinguish; surpass
heyday
N.
time of greatest success; prime.
attribute
ascribe; explain.

I attribute her success in science to the encouragement she received from her parents.
grudging
ADJ.
unwilling; reluctant; stingy.
cynic
one who is skeptical or distrustful of human motives.
hoard
V.
stockpile; accumulate for future use.
articulate
effective; distinct.

Her articulate presentation of the advertising campaign impressed her employers so much that they put her in charge of the project.
heterodox
ADJ.
unorthodox; unconventional.
diverse
ADJ.
differing in some characteristics; various.
heterogeneous
ADJ.
dissimilar; mixed.
ascetic
practicing self-denial; austere.

The wealthy, self-indulgent young men felt oddly drawn to the ascetic life led by members of some monastic orders.
glacial
ADJ.
like a glacier; extremely cold.
degenerate
become worse; detereorate.
guile
N.
deceit; duplicity; wiliness; cunning.
assuage
ease or lessen (pain); satisfy (hunger); soothe (anger).

Jilted by Jane, Dick tried to assuage his heartache by indulging in ice cream. One gallon later, he had assuaged his appetite but not his grief.
gregarious
ADJ.
sociable.
engender
V.
cause; produce.
hone
V.
sharpen.
austerity
sternness; severity; strict economy; lack of luxuries.

The bishops charged with conducting the heresy inquiry were a solemn, somewhat forbidding group; their demeanor reflected their austerity.
hackneyed
ADJ.
commonplace; trite.
degrade
lower in rank or dignity; debase.
harass
V.
annoy by repeated attacks; torment.
aspire
seek to attain; long for.

Because he aspired to a career in professional sports, Philip enrolled in a graduate program in sports management.
heed
V.
pay attention to; consider.
eccentric
ADJ.
odd; whimsical; irregular.
gratuitous
ADJ.
given freely; unwarranted; unprovoked.
embellish
V.
adorn; ornament.
heresy
N.
opinion contrary to popular belief; opinion contrary to accepted religion.
contentious
quarrelsome.
hostility
N.
unfriendliness; hatred.
enhance
V.
advance; improve.
hiatus
N.
gap; interruption in duration or continuity; pause.
debilitate
weaken; enfeeble.
germane
ADJ.
pertinent; bearing upon the case at hand.
enervate
V.
weaken.
hamper
V.
obstruct.
contract
compress or shrink; make a pledge; catch a disease.
grandiose
ADJ.
pretentious; high-flown; ridiculously exaggerated; impressive.
dogmatic
ADJ.
opinionated; arbitrary; doctrinal.
hypothetical
ADJ.
based on assumptions or hypotheses; supposed.
credibility
believability.
garrulous
ADJ.
loquacious; wordy; talkative.
espouse
V.
adopt; support.
iconoclast
N.
one who attacks cherished traditions.
daunt
intimidate; frighten.
hallowed
ADJ.
blessed; consecrated.
equivocal
ADJ.
ambiguous; intentionally misleading.
homogeneous
ADJ.
of the same kind.
depict
portray; describe.
gullible
ADJ.
easily deceived.
exalt
V.
raise in rank or dignity; praise.
gorge
N.
small, steep-walled canyon.
conviction
stringly held belief.
gratify
V.
please
erudite
ADJ.
learned; scholarly.
humane
ADJ.
marked by kindness or consideration.
cryptic
mysterious; hidden; secret.
hindrance
N.
block; obstacle.
doctrine
N.
teachings, in general; particular principle (religious, legal, and so on) taught.
haughtiness
N.
pride; arrogance.
indefatigable
ADJ.
tireless.
hedonist
N.
one who believes that pleasure is the sole aim in life.
exonerate
V.
acquit; exculpate.
idiosyncrasy
N.
individual trait, usually odd in nature; eccentricity.
indolent
ADJ.
lazy.
glutton
N.
someone who eats too much; greedy person.
expository
ADJ.
explanatory; intended to explain.
genre
N.
particular variety of art or literature.
credulity
belief on slight evidence; gullibility; naivete.
grievance
N.
cause of complaint.
dutiful
ADJ.
respectful; obedient.
gravity
N.
seriousness.
indict
V.
charge.
hierarchy
N.
arrangement by rank or standing ; authoritarian body divided into ranks.
epic
N.
long heroic poem, or similar work of art.
glib
ADJ.
fluent; facile; slick.
contend
struggle; compete; assert earnestly.
husband
V.
use sparingly; conserve; save.
episodic
ADJ.
loosely connected; divided into incidents; occuring at intervals.
hypocritical
ADJ.
pretending to be viruous; deceiving.
contemporary
person belonging to the same period.
bane
cause of ruin.

Lack of public transportation is the bane of urban life.
effervescent
ADJ.
exuberant; bubbly and excited.
biased
slanted; prejudiced.

Because the jugde played golf regularly with the district attorney's father, we feared he might be biased in the prosecution's favor.
indiscriminate
ADJ.
choosing at random; confused.
bequeath
leave to someone by a will; hand down.

Although Maud had intended to bequeath the family home to her nephew, she died before changing her will.
divulge
V.
reveal.
belligerent
quarrelsome.

Whenever he had too much to drink, be bacame belligerent and tried to pick fights with strangers.
decorum
propriety; orderliness and good taste in manners.
authoritarian
favoring or exercisng total control; nondemocratic.

Forced to obey the dictates of the authoritarian regime, the people had no control over their own destiny.
execute
V.
put into effect; carry out.
cajole
coax; wheedle.

Diane tried to cajole her father into letting her drive the family car.
indomitable
ADJ.
unconquerable; unyielding.
benevolent
generous; charitable.

Mr. Fezziwig was a benevolent employer who wished to make Christmas merrier for young Scrooge and his other employees.
elated
ADJ.
overjoyed; in high spirits.
belie
contradict; give a false impression.

His coarse, hard-bitten exterior belied his inner sensitivity.
cordial
gracious; heartfelt.
aversion
firm dislike.

Their mutual aversion was so great that they refused to speak to one another.
exacerbate
V.
worsen, embitter.
banal
hackneyed; commonplace; trite.

Was it Pendleton's stale plot or his cliché-ridden dialogue that made his play seem so banal?
induce
V.
persuade; bring about.
blasphemy
irreverence; sacrilege; cursing.

In my father's house, the Dodgers were the holiest of holies; to cheer for another team was to utter words of blasphemy.
esteem
V.
respect; value; judge.
brevity
conciseness; briefness.

Brevity is essential when you send a telegram or cablegram; you are charged for every word.
criterion
standard used in judging.
braggart
boastful person.

I wouldn't mind Bob's being such a braggart if I felt he'd done anything worth bragging about.
evanescent
ADJ.
fleeting; vanishing.
bland
soothing; mild; dull.

Unless you want your stomach lining to be eaten away, stick to a bland diet.
deference
courteous regard for another's wish.
benign
kindly; favorable; not malignant.

Though her benign smile and gentle bearing made Miss Marple seem a sweet little old lady. in reality she was a tough-mined, shrewd observer of human nature.
enduring
ADJ.
lasting; surviving.
belittle
disparage; make fun of.

Parents should not belittle their children's early attempts at drawing, but should encourage their efforts.
corroborate
confirm, support.
bolster
support; reinforce.

The debaters amassed file boxes full of evidence to bolster their arguments.
exemplary
ADJ.
serving as a model; outstanding.
autonomous
self-governing.

Although the University of California at Berkeley is just one part of the state university system, in many ways Cal Berkeley is autonomous, for it runs several programs that are not subject to outside control.
debunk
expose something as nonsensical or false.
brawn
muscular strength; sturdiness.

It takes brawn to become a champion weight-lifter.
enmity
N.
ill will; hatred.
candor
frankness.

The candor with which Gene spoke during the job interview impressed us all; it was clear he held nothing back.
indubitable
ADJ.
unable to be doubted; unquestionable.
buttress
support; prop up.

The attorney came up with several far-fetched arguments in a vain attempt to buttress his weak case.
enumerate
V.
list; mention one by one.
cacophonous
discordant; inharmonious.

Do the students in the orchestra enjoy the cacophonous sounds they make when they're tuning up? I don't know how they stand the racket.
defame
harm someone's reputation; malign.
calculated
deliberately planned; likely.

Lexy's choice of clothes to wear to the debate tournament was carefully calculated. Her conventional suit was one calculated to appeal to the conservative judges.
erratic
ADJ.
odd, unpredictable; wandering.
deny
contradict; refuse.
euphonious
ADJ.
pleasing in sound.
corrosion
destruction by chemical action.
ethereal
ADJ.
light; heavenly; unusually refined.
incorrigible
ADJ.
uncorrectable.
ephemeral
ADJ.
short-lived; fleeting.
indigent
ADJ.
poor; destitute.
epicure
N.
connoisseur of food and drink.
deliberate
consider; ponder.
exhilarating
ADJ.
invigorating and refreshing; cheering.
inept
ADJ.
unsuited; absurd; incompetent.
fanaticism
N.
excessive zeal; extreme devotion to a belief or cause.
deplore
regret strongly; express grief over.
fallacious
ADJ.
false; misleading.
delineate
portray; depict; sketch.
facilitate
V.
help bring about; make less difficult.
aesthetic
artistic; dealing w/ or capable of appreciation of the beautiful.

The beauty of Tiffany's stained glass appealed to Esther's aesthetic sense.
exploit
N.
deed or action, particularly a brave deed.
adroit
skillful; nimble.

The juggler's admirers particularly enjoyed his adroit handling of difficult balancing tricks.
fastidious
ADJ.
difficult to please; squeamish.
acquiesce
assent; agree w/o protesting.

When we asked her to participate in the play, she immediately acquiesced.
facile
ADJ.
easily accomplished; ready or fluent; superficial.
alienate
make hostile; separate.

Heather's attempts to alienate Amy from Ellen failed because the two friends had complete faith in one another.
affinity
natural liking; kinship; similarity.

Octavia felt an immediate affinity for the folk dancers she met; their love of dance was hers as well.
affirmation
positive assertion; confirmation; solemn pledge by one who refuses to take an oath.

Despite Tom's affirmations of innocence, Aunt Polly still suspected he had eaten the pie.
ambiguous
unclear or doubtful in meaning.

The proctor's ambiguous instructions thoroughly confused us; we didn't know which columns we should mark and which we should leave blank.
aggressor
attacker.

Before you punish both boys for fighting, see whether you can determine which one was the aggressor.
aloof
apart; reserved; standoffish.

His classmates thought James was a snob because, instead of joining in their conversations, he remained silent and aloof.
acute
quickly perceptive; keen; brief and severe.

The acute young doctor realized immediately that the gradual deterioration of her patient's once-acute hearing was due to a chronic illness, not an acute one.
affable
easily approachable; warmly friendly.

Accustomed to cold, aloof supervisors, Nicholas was amazed at how affable his new employer was.
adjacent
neighboring; adjoining.

You will find questions based on this reading passage located on the adjacent page.
advocate
urge; plead for.

Noted abolitionists such as Frederick Douglass and Sojourner Truth advocated the eradication of the Southern institution of slavery.
acrimonious
bitter in words or manner.

The candidate attacked his opponent in highly acrimonious terms.
adverse
unfavorable; hostile.

The recession had a highly adverse effect on Father's investment portfolio: he lostso much money that he could no longer afford the butleer and the upstairs maid.
alleviate
relieve.

The doctor's reassuring remarks alleviated June's fears for the baby; though he'd been born prematurely, he was rapidly gaining weight and could go home in a couple of weeks.
adulation
flattery; admiration.

The rock star relished the adulation she received from her groupies and yes-men.
altruistic
unselfishly generous; concerned for others.

In providing tutorial assistance and college scholarships for hundreds of economically disadvataged youths, Eugene Lang performed a truly altruistic deed.
address
direct a speech to; deal with or discuss.

Due to address the convention in July, Brown planned to address the issue of low-income housing in his speech.
adherent
supporter; follower.

In the wake of the scandal, the senator's one-time adherents quietly deserted him.
adversary
opponent.

The young wrestler struggled to overcome his adversary.
acknowledge
recognize; admit.

Although I acknowledge that the Beatles' tunes sound pretty dated nowadays, I still prefer them to the "gangsta" rap songs my brothers play.
ambivalence
the atate of having contradictory or conflicting emotional attitudes.

Torn between loving her parents one minute and hating them the next, she was confused by the ambivalence of her feelings.
ameliorate
improve; make more satisfactory.

Carl became a union organizer because he wanted to join the fight to ameliorate the working conditions in the factory.
amorphous
formless; lacking shape or definition.

As soon as we have decided on our itinerary, we shall send you a copy; right now, our plans are still amorphous.
amend
correct; change, generally for the better.

Hoping to amend his circumstances, Luong left Vietnam for the United States.