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38 Cards in this Set

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ribose
What is the RNAs sugar?
Transcription
The process of synthesizing messenger RNA (mRNA) from a DNA template. Involves RNA polymerase binding to a promotor. Uracil substitutes for thymine.
RNA polymerase
Involves ____ __________ binding to a promotor.
uracil
What substitutes for thymine in transcription?
introns
exons
In transcription of eukaryotic cells, a extra processing step is needed: _______ are removed and _____ are joined together with a cap and tail.
Translation
The use of mRNA template in protein synthesis.

1. initiation
2. elongation
3. termination/stop
Initiation
mRNA becomes associated with a ribosome.
elongation
A series of Transfer RNAs (tRNA) each with a specific A.A. attaches to mRNA in the ribosome. Peptide bonds form btwn A.A.
peptide
What kind of bonds form btwn A.A. in the elongation step of translation?
phosphate
What holds nucleotides together in DNA?
hydrogen bonds
What joins together the 2 antiparallel strands of DNA?
codon
each set of 3 bases on mRNA is called _______.
amino acid
Each codon specifies a specific _______ ______.
anticodon
tRNA carries the ________ and the amino acid.
termination/stop
A codon or signal attaches and the ribosome, mRNA and protein separate.
Fredrick Grifith
Working with two strains of Strep. pneunoniae

Heat kiiled virulent (w/capsules) + Live avirulent (no capsules) = Live virulent (with capsules)
Genetic transfer
Transformation
Conjugation
Transduction
Transformation
The process in which genes are transferred from one bacterial cell to another as "naked" DNA.
Mechanism of transformation
Fragments of DNA from lysed cells are taken up by other bacteria and recombine with their own DNA.
Conjugation
Transfer of genetic information from one bacteria to another by cell to cell contact. Donor (F+) cell attaches to recipient (F-) cells by means of sex pili and transfers genetic material. Can transfer plasmids or parts of it own chromosome.
transduction
Transfer of genetic material from one bateria to another by means of a bacteriophage (a virus that infects a bacteria). eg. cancer genes
Plasmids
Small self-replication circles of DNA found in many bacteria.
F plasmids
fertility

Formation of sex pili
Bacteriocinogenic plasmids
bacteriocins

protein which kill other bacteria.
R plasmids
resistance factors

provide resistance to antibiotics and other chemicals. (often coupled with gene for replication, conjugation and transfer.)
Plasmids
are used for toxin production
Mutations
An alteration in base pair sequence. (mutations in gametes can be passed on to offspring)
Spontaneous mutations
Results from mistakes in replication or natural background radiation. (1 mutation/10^5 - 10^10 replications)
Induced mutations
Mutagens/mutagenic agents: Agents which alter DNA. eg. X-rays; carcinogens
Same-sense
Mis-sense
Nonsense
What are the categories of mutation for point mutations?
Same-sense mutations
A mutation that codes for the same A.A.
Mis-sense mutations
Cose for a different A.A.

e.g. Sickle cell anemia : CTT = glutamic acid changed to CAT = valine
Nonsense mutations
A mutation that codes for a "stop" signal or a stop signal is substituted with an A.A.
Frameshift mutations
A mutation caused by the addition or deletion of one or more bases in DNA.
Insertions or Deletions
Results in misreading of many codons.

eg. deletion The Cat ate the rat
Thc ata tet her at
Transposons
Barbara McClintok
Transposons
A small piece of DNA that can move from one DNA molecule to another.
"Jumping genes"
transposons

Segments of DNA that can move their position in the genome.