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39 Cards in this Set

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Site of hematopoiesis in the early embryo:
Blood islands in the yolk sac
When does bone marrow hematopoiesis start?
5 months prenatal
What happens to the red marrow of long bones by age 20?
Becomes yellow fatty marrow
Where does blood production occur after age 20?
Only in flat bones
What is the daily BM demand for:
-RBCs
-WBCs
-Platelets
RBCs - 10^11 new ones
WBCs - 10^10
Plts - 4 x 10^11
What percent of the total body mass is the marrow?
5%
What gives rise to Hematopoietic stem cells, Endothelial progenitor cells, and Mesenchymal stem cells?
1 single multipotent stem cell resting in Go in the bone marrow!
What does that first early multipotent stem cell differentiate into?
1. Mesenchymal stem cells
2. Hemangioblasts
Hemangioblasts express ____ and have the capacity to become:
Express CD45
Can become either:
-HSCs (hematopoietic stem cells) -or Endothelial progenitors.
What do HSCs express that Endothelial progenitors don't?
c-Kit
What do HSCs differentiate into?
-Myeloid precursors
-Lymphoid precursors
What arises from the myeloid precursor?
-Erythroids
-Granulocytes
-Megakaryocytes
What does a Myeloid leukemia refer to?
Only those involving granulocytes
What are CFUs?
Colony forming units - the cells that differentiate from myeloid or lymphoid progenitors and form clones of a given cell type.
What determines which colony will develop?
CSFs - colony stimulating factors.
What is the major multipotent CSF? What does it bind?
SCF - Stem cell factor - binds c-Kit (all myeloids)
(also Interleukins)
What does Stem cell factor do?
Interacts with c-kit on ALL hematopoietic progenitor cells
How is the site of expression of SCF related to the site of hematopoeisis?
It is only expressed in bone marrow, so that's why it occurs there.
What interleukins are stimulants of multipotent precursor cells?
IL 1, 3, 6
What is EPO?
Where is it made?
Erythropoeitin - A UNIPOTENT CSF - made in kidney and liver cells.
What cell does Epo induce to form?
CFU - E -> colony forming unit for erythrocytes.
What is Tpo? What does it induce to form?
Thrombopoietin - a UNIPOTENT CSF - induces formation of CFU-meg
What is G-CSF and what does it promote to form?
Granulocyte colony stim factor - induces granulocytes of the neutrophil lineage to form.
What is M-CSF?
Monocyte colony stimulating factor.
How many monocytes are stimulated to form daily?
10^10
What else does M-CSF stimulate?
Macrophage differentiation into OSTEOCLASTS.
3 purposes of BMT:
1. Gene transfer therapy
2. Replace BM destroyed by chemo or radiation
3. Replace genetically deficient or malignant bone marrow
3 types of BMT:
1. Allogeneic
2. Syngeneic
3. Autologous
Allogeneic:
transplant between a donor and recepient who are genetically different.
Syngeneic:
transplant between twins
Autologous
Transplant of one's own marrow
Major complication of allogenic transplants:
Graft versus host disease
What must be done prior to an autologous transplant?
Injection of SCF and G-CSF into the patient - to enrich their hematopoeitic precursor cells.
What is a way to enrich the harvest of hematopoietic precursor cells?
By using Anti-CD34 to segregate and isolate them.
What is a major disadvantage of autologous transplants in cancer patients?
Transplant of occult tumor cells along with the good ones.
How can malignant cells be removed?
Also by monoclonal antibodies
What must be done to cure illnesses like SC anemia?
Insertion of a transgene into the CFU-E before transplant.
What are the stages in the RBC maturation series?
PBPORE
Proerythroblast
Basophilic erythroblast
Polychromatophilic erythroblast
orthochromatophilic erythroblast
Reticulocyte
Erythrocyte
What are the stages in the myeloid neutrophilic maturation series?
-Myeloblast
-Promyeloblast
-Myelocyte (neutrophilic)
-Metamyelocyte
-Band
-Neutrophil