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53 Cards in this Set

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What is the Cerebral cortex derived from embryologically?
The telencephalon
3 subdivisions of the cerebral cortex:
-Archicortex
-Paleocortex
-Neocortex
What is the archicortex?
Hippocampus + Dentate gyrus

Archy the hippo's dentist
What is the Paleocortex?
Olfactory cortex - the uncus
How many layers are in the Neocortex?
6
6 lobes of the Cerebral cortex:
1. Frontal
2. Parietal
3. Temporal
4. Occipital
5. Insula
6. Limbic
Where is the precuneus?
In the parietal lobe
What makes up the inferior parietal lobe?
-Supramarginal gyrus
-Angular gyrus
Where is the paracentral lobule?
In the parietal lobe
What is the major blood supply to the cerebral cortex?
The circle of willis
What is the major veinous drainage from the cerebral cortex?
The internal jugular veins
How many cell layers are in the Archicortex?
(Hippocampus + dentate gyrus)
three layers
How many cell layers are in the neocortex?
6
What are the six cell layers in the neocortex? (outer-innermost)
1. Molecular
2. Outer granular
3. Outer pyramidal
4. Inner granular
5. Inner pyramidal
6. Multiform layer
What are the functional units in the cerebral cortex?
Columns/modules
what are the TWO MAJOR CELL TYPES TO KNOW IN THE CORTEX?
1. Pyramidal
2. Nonpyramidal
What is the major cell type?
Pyramidal
Through which cell layers do the columns in the cortex extend?
All six
What do the functional columns do?
Form modules in various cortical areas like the primary somatosensory, visual, and auditory cortices.
Are the columns of cortical neurons isolated from one another?
No; they are interconnected within the same hemisphere, and between the two hemispheres.
What are Brodmann's Areas 3, 1, and 2?
Postcentral gyrus - primary somatosensory
What is Brodmann's Area 4?
Precentral gyrus - Primary motor
What is Brodmann's Area 17?
Cuneus and Lingual gyrus - primary visual cortex
What are Brodmann's Areas 41 / 42?
Transverse gyri of Hershl - primary auditory cortex
What are Brodmann's Areas 44/45?
Brocas areas of motor speech
On which side of the brain are Brocas areas dominant?
Left
What is the afferent to the Anterior nuclear group of the thalamus?
Mammillary body
What is the efferent that the Anterior nuclear group of the thalamus projects to?
Cingulate gyrus
Function of the anterior nuclear group of the thalamus:
Limbic
What is the afferent for the Ventral Anterior lateral nucleus of thalamus?
Globus Pallidus
Where does the Ventral Anterior lateral nucleus of thalamus project to?
Area 6 - premotor cortex
Function of VA/VL of thalamus:
motor
What is the afferent to VL of the thalamus?
Dentate nucleus
Where does VL project to?
Areas 4/6
What are the afferents to VPL and VPM in the thalamus?
DC-ML, STT and Trigeminal nucleus
Where do VPL and VPM project to?
Areas 3, 1, and 2
What are the functions of VPL and VPM?
Somatosensory of the body and face
What is LGN involved in?
Vision
What gives afferents to LGN?
Retina
Where does LGN project to?
Area 17
What is MGN involved in?
Audition
What projects to MGN?
IC (cochlear?)
To where does MGN project?
Areas 41, 42
What is the medial group involved in? Where does its afferent come from? Where does it project to?
Involved in: Limbic
Afferent: Amygdala, olf, HT
Efferent: Prefrontal
In general how is the cerebral cortex connected with the thalamus?
Reciprocally
With what 3 types of fibers is the cortex associated with itself?
-Short association fibers (connect neighoring gyri)
-Long association fibers (connect lobes)
-Callosal fibers (connect hemispheres)
5 general functions of the cerebral cortex:
1. Perception of special senses
2. Planning/executing voluntary movements
3. Emotions and behaviors
4. Mental functioning
5. Memory
What are the 3 usual causes of Cerebral cortex dysfunction?
-Vascular hemorrhage
-Thrombosis
-Tumor
What are tumors generally originated from?
Glia
What will a lesion of the primary motor cortex result in?
Paralysis on the contralateral side
What will a lesion of the primary sensory cortex result in?
Contralateral loss of somatic sensation
What will a lesion of the primary visual cortex result in?
Contralateral hemianopia
What will a lesion of the hippocampus result in?
Memory dysfunction