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53 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What are the Basal Ganglia?
A group of nuclei located inferior to the cerebral cortex
What are the basal ganglia derived from embryologically?
The telencephalon (mainly), and the diencephalon and mesencephalon.
2 diseases caused by lesions of the basal ganglia:
Basal ganglia lesions will result in:
Too much or too little movement that is involuntary
Cerebellar lesions will result in:
Uncontrolled movements.
What is the nature of all the basal ganglia?
What is the nature of the subthalamic nucleus?
What are the 6 basal ganglia nuclei?
-Caudate nucleus
-Globus pallidus
-Subthalamic nucleus
-Substantia nigra
-Nucleus accumbens
What makes up the corpus striatum?
-Caudate nucleus
-Globus pallidus
What makes up the Striatum?
Caudate + Putamen
What are the lentiform nuclei?
Putamen and Globus Pallidus
Why are the caudate and putamen together called the Striatum?
B/c their connectedness gives them a striated appearence.
Where is the Caudate nucleus?
It follows the c-shape of the lateral ventricles from frontal lobe wrapping around to temporal.
Where is the Putamen?
Below the caudate nucleus and lateral to the thalamus.
Where is the globus pallidus located?
Below the putamen
What are the 2 subdivisions of the globus pallidus?
1. Globus pallidus externa
2. Globus pallidus internus
Where is the subthalamic nucleus located?
Under the thalamus
What is the most important thing to remember about the subthalamic nucleus?
It is the only excitatory portion of the basal ganglia
What NT does the subthalamic nucleus use?
What NT do the rest of the basal ganglia nuclei use?
Where is Substantia nigra located?
In the midbrain
What are the 2 subdivisions of Substantia nigra?
Which is ventral, or dorsal?
-Pars compacta (SNc) Dorsal
-Pars reticulata (SNr) Ventral
Which part of Substantia nigra releases dopamine?
Pars compacta
Which part of Substantia nigra releases GABA?
Pars reticulata
What disease will result if you lesion the pars compacta of Substantia nigra?
What is the nucleus accumbens?
The part of the ventral striatum where the caudate is continuous with the putamen
What is the importance of Nucleus accumbens?
-Uses dopamine
-Involved in addiction
3 main vessels that supply blood to the basal ganglia:
ACA (lenticulostriates)
MCA (lenticulostriates)
How many pathways in the basal ganglia, and what are they?
1. Direct pathway
2. Indirect pathway
3. Nigrostriatal pathway
Where is the main put to the basal ganglia from, and what receives it?
From: the cortex
To: the Striatum
What is achieved by the direct pathway?
The thalamus is disinhibited and movement is facilitated.
What are the steps in the Direct pathway?
1. Cortex releases Glutamate to excite the Striatum
2. Striatum releases GABA to inhibit GPi and SNr
3. GPi and SNr no longer inhibit the thalamus
4. The thalamus excites the Premotor cortex and SMA!
What is achieved by the indirect pathway?
The thalamus is inhibited and thus movement is inhibited.
What are the steps in the indirect pathway?
1. STriatum releases GABA to inhibit GPe
2. GPE no longer inhibits Subthalamic nucleus
3. Subthalamic nucleus now excites GPe, GPi, and SNr
4. GPi/SNr inhibit the Thalamus so no motor excitation.
What is the function of the Nigrostriatal pathway? What type of pathway is it?
Dopaminergic - it facilitates movement by acting on both direct and indirect pathways.
What are the 2 different output neurons in the striatum?
-Neurons with D1 dopamine receptors
-Neurons with D2 dopamine receptors
What happens when dopamine binds D1 receptors?
the Direct pathway is ACTIVATED and movement is facilitated
What happens when dopamine binds D2 receptors?
the Indirect pathway is activated and movement is inhibited.
Where does dopamine come from?
The nigrostriatal pathway - from Substantia nigra pars compacta
What is the overall affect of the Nigrostriatal pathway?
Facilitation of movement
But what is the main source of input to the basal ganglia?
Cortex - not nigrostriatal pathway.
Where do extrinsic inputs to the basal ganglia mainly terminate?
In the striatum (caudate and putamen)
2 places where extrinsic inputs to the basal ganglia come from:
-Cerebral cortex
-Thalamus (intralaminar nuclei)
2 places where extrinsic OUTPUT from the basal ganglia mainly go:
-Motor nuclei of the thalamus
-Superior colliculus of midbrain
Where does extrinsic output from the basal ganglia mainly ARISE from?
-Globus pallidus
-Substantia nigra pars reticulata
Which part of the basal ganglia sends output to the superior colliculus?
What are the major connections WITHIN the basal ganglia?
-Caudate and putamen reciprocally connected to SN
-SN reciprocally connected to striatum
-Subthalamic nucleus connected with globus pallidus
After the SMA and premotor cortex get activated by the thalamus, how do they talk back to the basal ganglia?
Via the Subthalamic nucleus
What is the general functional significance of the basal ganglia?
Involved in the regulation of movement
What do the basal ganglia achieve through their direct and indrect connections with the cerebral cortex?
They influence descending motor systems.
The basal ganglia forms the major component of the:
Extrapyramidal motor system
2 Specific motor functions the basal ganglia are involved in:
-Control of eye movements
-Memory of orientation in space
2 nonmotor functions the basal ganglia is functionally significant in:
-Limbic functions