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35 Cards in this Set

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12.1

electromagnetic wave
A form of energy that can travel through space.
12.1

radiation
The direct transfer of energy by electromagnetic waves.
12.1

infrared
A form of energy with wavelengths that are longer than visible light.
12.1

ultraviolet radiation
A form of energy with wavelengths that are shorter than visible light.
12.1

scattering
Reflection of light in all directions.
12.2

conduction
The direct transfer of heat from one substance to another substance that it is touching.
12.2

convection
The transfer of heat by the movement of a fluid.
12.2

heat
The energy transferred from a hotter object to a cooler one.
12.2

thermal energy
The total energy of motion in the molecules of a substance.
12.2

thermometer
An instrument used to measure temperature, consisting of a thin, glass tube with a bulb on one end that contains a liquid (usually mercury or alcohol).
12.3

anemometer
An instrument used to measure wind speed.
12.3

land breeze
The flow of air from land to a body of water.
12.3

global winds
Winds that blow steadily from specific directions over long distances.
12.3

latitude
The distance from the equator, measured in degrees.
12.3

monsoons
Sea and land breezes over a large region that change direction with the seasons.
12.3

sea breeze
The flow of air from an ocean or lake to the land.
12.3

wind
The horizontal movement of air from an area of high pressure to an area of lower pressure.
12.3

wind chill factor
Increased cooling of the skin caused by the wind.
12.4

cirrus
Wispy, feathery clouds made mostly of ice crystals that form at high levels, above about 6 kilometers.
12.4

condensation
The process by which molecules of water vapor in the air become liquid water; also, the change of state from a gas to a liquid.
12.4

cumulus
Clouds that form less than 2 kilometers above the ground and look like fluffy, rounded piles of cotton.
12.4

evaporation
The process by which molecules at the surface of a liquid absorb enough energy to change to the gaseous state.
12.4

humidity
A measure of the amount of water vapor in the air.
12.4

psychrometer
An instrument used to measure relative humidity that consists of a wet-bulb thermometer and a dry-bulb thermometer.
12.4

stratus
Clouds that form in flat layers.
12.5

droughts
Long periods of low precipitation.
12.5

precipitation
Water that falls to Earth as rain, snow, hail, or sleet.
12.2

temperature
The average energy of motion in molecules of a substance.
12.3

Coriolis effect
The way Earth's rotation makes winds in the Northern Hemisphere curve to the right and the winds in the Southern Hemisphere curve to the left.
12.3

jet streams
Bands of high-speed winds about 10 kilometers above Earth's surface.
12.3

local winds
Winds that blow over short distances.
12.4

relative humidity
The percentage of water vapor in the air compared to the maximum amount the air could hold at that temperature.
12.5

rain gauge
An instrument used to measure the amount of precipitation, consisting of an open-ended can topped by collecting funnel and having a collecting tube and measuring scale inside.
12.1 greenhouse effect
The process by which heat is trapped in the atmosphere by water vapor, carbon dioxide, methane, and other gases that form a "blanket" around the earth.
12.4 dew point
The temperature at which condensation begins.