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106 Cards in this Set

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What type of powerplants are installed on the 747-400 and what is their rated thrust output?
Four Pratt-Whitney, PW-4056 engines are installed on the airplane. Each engine provides 56,750 lbs. thrust.
What are the primary engine indications and where are they normally displayed?
EPR, N1, and EGT. All three are displayed on Primary EICAS.
What are the secondary engine indications?
N2, fuel flow, oil pressure, oil temperature, oil quantity, and engine vibration.
Where are the secondary engine indications normally displayed?
On the Secondary EICAS display.
How can secondary engine indications be displayed on lower EICAS?
Select ENG on the EICAS Display Select panel; move a fuel control switch to CUTOFF while in flight.
On the EICAS display how is the normal operating range of engine instruments shown?
In white.
How is the caution range displayed?
By amber bands.
How are maximum operating limits indicated?
By a red line.
What two engine indications have caution ranges?
EGT and oil temperature.
When the EGT display turns amber what is indicated?
The max continuous limit is exceeded.
How long are the red line limits inhibited from annunciating during takeoff?
Not inhibited.
What is the EICAS indication of a red line EGT limit exceedance?
The entire EGT display turns red. It remains red until the temperature decreases below the limit. The box around the EGT digital display remains red, but will turn white if the CANC button is selected on the EICAS Control panel.
Will a red indication for N1, N2 and EGT return to white if the normal operating range is reentered?
Yes. But, the box around the digital readout will remain red, unless canceled by either pilot.
When is the EGT indication inhibited from changing color to indicate the caution range?
For five minutes after the TO/GA switch is pushed for takeoff or go-around.
How is maximum EPR displayed on the vertical indicator?
Max EPR is displayed by an amber line at the top of the vertical indicator.
Will the vertical EPR indicator turn amber if actual EPR reaches the max EPR amber line?
No.
How does one engine oil quantity indicator display a significantly lower oil quantity than the other engines?
The indication changes color from white to magenta.
How is the engine oil pressure display changed when engine oil pressure falls below the red line limit?
It changes to red.
Engine oil must be greater than what temperature prior to advancing the throttles to takeoff power?
50 degrees C.
What color is the engine oil temperature when the temperature is less than 50 degrees C?
Amber.
How much oil is required for each engine prior to start for a flight from DTW to NRT? KIX to MNL?
16 quarts >= 4 hours; 12 quarts < 4 hours.
What EICAS annunciation is displayed for a derated power takeoff? Full power?
TO 1; TO.
What EICAS annunciation is displayed for a derated power assumed temperature takeoff (flex)? Full power assumed temperature(flex)?
D -TO 1 +38c; D -TO +38c.
What fuel valves are controlled by operation of a FUEL CONTROL switch?
The spar valve and the engine fuel valve for that engine.
Where are the spar valves physically located?
Each spar valve is located in it's respective main fuel tank.
Where are the engine fuel valves located?
Immediately downstream of each fuel metering unit.
Which engine fuel system/IDG component warms the fuel?
Fuel/oil heat exchanger.
Where is fuel flow measured?
In the fuel flow transmitter downstream of the fuel metering unit and engine fuel valve.
How is fuel flow normally displayed?
Digital readout on Secondary EICAS.
How many ignition system ignitors are provided for each engine?
Two.
What is the normal power source for each ignitor?
Ignitor 1 engines 1-4: AC bus 1; Ignitor 2 engines 1 - 4: AC bus 3.
Do the ignitors operate individually or simultaneously?
The igniters operate individually or simultaneously depending on the selection of the Auto Ignition selector (1, 2, or BOTH).
How is engine ignition ARMED?
Ignition is armed for a respective engine when:-respective Start switch is pulled out or-respective Nacelle anti-ice switch is ON.Ignition is armed for ALL engines when:-trailing edge flaps are out of up, or-CON IGNITION switch is ON.
Once ignition is armed, how is ignition energized?
The selected igniter on each engine energizes when the respective Fuel Control switch is in RUN.
What switch energizes the ignitors?
The FUEL CONTROL switch must be in RUN.
What indicators are available to inform the crew that continuous ignition has been manually selected?
The continuous ignition switch is ON; EICAS Memo message CON IGNIT ON.
What is the back up power source for ignition?
The standby bus can power ignitor 1 or 2, but NOT both at the same time.
What is the normal position of the Standby Ignition selector which allows the auto ignition system AC busses to supply power to the selected igniters?
NORM
If the standby ignition switch is in NORM and AC bus 1 fails, what does the standby power system do?
If an auto ignition system ac bus fails and ignition is required, the standby bus automatically applies power to ignitor 1 for all engines. A STBY IGNITION ON Memo message appears on Primary EICAS.
What occurs with the Standby Ignition selector in 1 or 2?
The standby bus powers only the selected igniter (1 or 2) on all engines regardless of the position of the Auto Ignition selector.
When is the CON setting on the CDU THRUST REF page used?
To manually select maximum continuous thrust in flight.
What does the fuel-on indicator (magenta line) on the N2 tape indicate?
This indicator displays the minimum N2 RPM at which the Fuel Control switch should be placed to RUN during start. (Displayed when the Fuel Control switch is in CUTOFF and the Fire Switch is IN.)
What additional display appears on the EGT indication to assist in engine start when the Fuel Control switch is in CUTOFF?
A maximum start limit (red, 535 degrees C) is displayed until the engine stabilizes at idle.
Which switches allow bleed air to flow to the engine starter?
Start switch ON, Engine Bleed Air switch ON.
When should starter cutout automatically occur?
50 percent N2 RPM.
If the start cycle is NOT automatically terminated at 50 percent N2, what must be done?
(The EICAS message STARTER CUTOUT will be displayed; the starter VALVE light will remain illuminated.)The COM will instruct you to manually push the Engine Start switch IN to close the start valve and terminate starter operation.
How long after ignition should it take the engine to reach idle RPM?
No longer than 2 minutes.
When does the magenta in-flight start envelope appear on Primary EICAS?
The in-flight start envelope is displayed in-flight when the engine is windmilling, a Fuel Control switch is in CUTOFF, and the respective Engine Fire switch is IN.
What information does the in-flight start envelope display provide?
Provides airspeed range for an in-flight start at the current flight level, or at the maximum start altitude if it is lower.
How do you know when cross bleed air is necessary for the in-flight start?
An X-BLD (cross bleed) annunciator is displayed next to the N2 indication if airspeed is NOT high enough for a windmilling start.
Does the fuel-on indicator display for an in-flight start?
Yes, when the Fuel Control switch is positioned in CUTOFF, and the respective Fire switch is IN.
What is indicated if the N1 indicators on Primary EICAS have a green “NAI” displayed next to them?
Nacelle anti-ice is selected on and continuous ignition is automatically selected.
Under what conditions would you manually select continuous ignition inflight?
Volcanic dust, severe turbulence, heavy rain (no automatic selection to prevent engine flameout); in-flight engine start. A CON IGNITION Memo message appears on Primary EICAS.
When do the ignitors begin firing during a windmilling in-flight engine start with X-BLD NOT displayed on EICAS?
When the Fuel Control switch is selected to RUN, provided an ignition source is already selected--continuous ignition, NAI, TE flaps.
What system has full authority over the operation of the engines?
The electronic engine controls (EECs).
What are the two control modes available to the Electronic Engine Control (EEC) for controlling engine operation?
Normal (EPR)and alternate (N1).
What protection does the Electronic Engine Control (EEC) provide in the normal control mode?
Overboost, overspeed, and atmospheric compensation.
TRUE or FALSE: During standby operation when power is NOT available from main ac bus 1 or 3, pushing the continuous ignition switch has NO effect on ignition system operation.
True.
What overspeed protections are provided by the EEC?
At thrust settings above idle the EEC monitors N1 and N2 RPM and automatically prevents rotor overspeed (RED LINE).
What occurs if the rotor is approaching the overspeed limit?
The EEC commands the fuel metering unit to reduce fuel flow to keep rotor speed from exceeding the operating limit.
Does the EEC provide over-temperature protection in either control mode?
No.
In the normal mode, how does the EEC control engine thrust?
-The EEC uses EPR, based on thrust lever position as the controlling parameter for setting thrust.-The EEC then compares calculated EPR to actual EPR. If a difference exists, then the EEC commands the fuel metering unit to adjust fuel flow until actual EPR equals calculated EPR.
If autothrottles are armed for takeoff (arming switch ON, takeoff mode selected - i.e. flight directors ON), what action engages the autothrottles?
Push a TO/GA switch prior to 50 kts.
In the alternate control mode, what is the primary controlling parameter for setting thrust?
N1 RPM based on Thrust lever position.
What protection does the EEC provide in the alternate control mode?
Only N1 and N2 overspeed protection. No overboost, no atmospheric compensation, no overtemp, and no autothrottles.
How does the EEC compensate for changes in flight or environmental conditions when operating in the normal mode?
Once the engine is stabilized, the EEC automatically keeps thrust constant despite changes in environmental conditions, nacelle and wing anti-ice, or other bleed air requirements. NOTE: The Thrust levers will not move for EPR climb adjustments.
How is transfer to the ALTN control mode accomplished?
The EECs can automatically switch to alternate due to sensor or hardware problems making the EEC unable to control fuel flow based upon EPR, the crew can manually select ALTN, or reverse thrust is selected.
When does the EEC use the ALTN control mode?
When both the A and B normal channels of an EEC fail for a specific function, the EEC automatically switches to alternate control mode. During reverse thrust operation, the EEC automatically switches to alternate.
With EEC in ALTN, will maximum EPR be reached before the thrust levers are at the full forward position?
YES, the max EPR limit most probably will be reached at a thrust lever position less than full forward.
How are the autothrottles controlled when the EECs transfer from normal to alternate?
The autothrottles automatically disconnect. Autothrottles are NOT available with any EEC in alternate mode.
In the ALTN mode do the thrust levers have to be manually adjusted in flight as environmental conditions change to maintain desired thrust?
Yes, atmospheric compensation and autothrottles no longer function.
If EEC control transfers automatically from NORM to ALTN, is there an abrupt thrust change?
No, thrust does NOT change when the EEC automatically transfers control from normal to alternate.
Will thrust change when control is manually transferred from NORM to ALTN?
Yes, thrust increases with a thrust setting greater than idle.
What should be accomplished prior to manually selecting the ALTN mode?
When thrust is greater than idle, the thrust lever should be moved to the MID POSITION (idle on the ground) prior to manually selecting alternate.
How does the EEC control the engine when reverse thrust is selected?
The EEC automatically selects the ALTN mode when reverse thrust is used, due to unreliable EPR sensing during reverser operation.
What happens to the autothrottle annunciation on the FMA when reverse thrust is selected?
The A/T annunciation blanks.
What does the EICAS Caution message >ENG _ LIM PROT indicate?
The EEC is in the ALTN mode and the maximum EPR limit may be exceeded with further thrust lever advancement.
When does the EEC command approach idle?
Anytime nacelle anti-ice is selected ON, or continuous ignition is selected, or the flaps are in the landing position (25 or 30). Approach idle is available in the NORM and ALTN modes.
What is the purpose of approach idle?
Approach idle decreases engine acceleration time for go around and provides higher idle speed for nacelle anti-ice and continuous ignition operation.
When does the EEC automatically select minimum idle?
Five seconds after touchdown.
What does the engine vibration monitoring system monitor?
The system monitors N1 and N2 vibration levels to track rotor imbalance and displays on Secondary EICAS engine display.
How does the vibration monitoring system determine when to indicate N1 or N2 vibration?
The system automatically selects the higher vibration of the two.
What is indicated if the vibration monitoring system has a fault and cannot determine N1 or N2 vibration levels?
Broad band (BB) vibration is now displayed for the affected engine. This is the average vibration of the N1 and N2 engine rotors.
When can the engine thrust reversers be deployed?
Only when the airplane is on the ground.
How are the engine thrust reversers protected against deploying inadvertently?
The reverser system applies hydraulic pressure to automatically stow and lock the reversers during flight when an unlock indication is sensed.
What unlocks and deploys the thrust reversers when the levers are actuated into the reverse idle detent with the aircraft on the ground?
Hydraulic pressure.
How is engine fan air used for reversing?
The fan reversers move aft into the deployed position. Fan air is directed by blocker doors through the cascade vanes, and directed forward.
What is indicated if the EICAS Advisory message >ENG REVERSER is displayed?
-If Reverse Thrust levers are raised in flight, reverser deployment is possible.-In flight, the message indicates that any additional reverser system fault may cause the reverser to deploy inadvertently. -After landing, with the message displayed, the reverser can be expected to operate normally.
On the Primary EICAS display, what does the green line across the EPR vertical indicator indicate?
Selected EPR reference.
On the Primary EICAS display, what does the magenta line across the EPR vertical indicator indicate?
FMC/VNAV reference EPR indicator
How do you know the thrust levers are properly positioned for takeoff?
Actual EPR equals reference EPR.
When does the green reference EPR indicator on Primary EICAS turn magenta?
When the FMC determines reference EPR during VNAV SPD climb.
When would the reference EPR indicator not be displayed on the EPR vertical display?
When reverse thrust is activated, when maximum EPR is invalid with all EECs selected to the alternate mode, or with a fault in the EEC.
What does the green digital EPR figure located above the boxed white EPR digit indicate?
Reference EPR for the selected thrust reference mode (Same as the green indicator line).
How is actual EPR displayed on Primary EICAS?
White bar; white digits inside the white EPR box.
On the Primary EICAS display, what does the white line across the EPR vertical indicator indicate?
Command sector; displays EPR target commanded by thrust lever position.
What does the amber REV (thrust reverser status indicator) above the EPR box indicate?
Reverser unlocked, and/or in transit.
What does the green REV (thrust reverser status indicator) above the EPR box indicate?
Reverser is fully deployed.
Moving the Reverse Thrust Levers from the interlock stop to the full down position causes the thrust reverser sleeves to ______.
Stow.
Besides the Engine Fuel Control switch, what switch controls the engine fuel valve?
Engine fire switch for that engine.
Is fuel filtered?
Yes, by an internally mounted fuel pump filter. Filter bypass is possible.
When is continuous ignition automatically selected on?
Anytime the flaps are out of up or engine anti-ice is selected on.
In the alternate N1 mode, how does the EEC control engine thrust?
Alternate mode schedules N1 speed as a direct function of thrust lever angle.
If you inadvertently enter a volcanic cloud at night and all four engines flame out, is ignition available? If so, from what source?
Yes, from the standby ignition system powered by the standby bus.
If an EEC detects a thrust reverser deployment of more than 10 percent with throttles above idle, the EEC will ________.
Immediately and automatically reduce thrust to idle.
TRUE or FALSE: The EEC does NOT provide engine thrust limiting at maximum EPR (over-boost protection) in the ALTN (alternate) mode.
True.