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47 Cards in this Set

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The normal partial pressures of O2 and CO2 in the alveoli are...
O2 = 100mmHg
CO2 = 40mmHg
The amount of air remaining in the lungs following passive expiration of a tidal breath is the:
functional residual capacity
The tidal breath is approx 500ml, how much of that volume is exchanged in the alveoli?
350ml
Which of the following disorders is characterized by an increase in compliance but reduced ability to exchange respiratory gases?
-asthma
-pulmonary fibrosis
-emphysema
-RDS
Emphysema
The most sensitive mechanism for regulating ventilation is:
detection of elevated PCO2 by pH sensors in chemosensitive cells in medulla
Under resting conditions, at sea level, about what fraction of oxygen bound to hemoglobin in the lungs is released to the tissues?
20%
Hyperventilation will result in what condition?
-oxygen toxicity in alveoli
-respiratory acidosis
-respiratory alkalosis
-metabolic acidosis
Respiratory alkalosis
Which of the following tissues would not be affected by mutations of CFTR that cause cystic fibrosis?
-airway
-sweat glands
-kidney
-pancreas
kidney
Which class of epithelium is best suited for passive transport?
simple squamous
Which surface modification increases absorptive capacity?
Microvilli
Surfactant is produced by which of the following cells?
-dust cell
-type 2 pneumocyte
-septal cells
-type 1 pneumocyte
-brush cell
type 2 pneumocyte
The normal partial pressures of O2 and CO2 in the PULMONARY ARTERIES are....
O2 = 40mmHg
CO2 = 45mmHg
The normal mixing of systemic venous blood from the lungs with blood in the pulmonary veins is termed an ___________ and results in ____________.
anatomical shunt
small reduction of PO2 in systemic arterial blood
Lipids absorbed across the apical membrane of brush border cells are
reconstituted into chylomicrons in the smooth endoplasmic reticulum
What are the structures where respiratory gas exchange occurs?
Alveoli and respiratory bronchioles
Emphysema results from what disorder of the lungs?
-lack of surfactin
-loss of divisions between alveoli
-reduced compliance relative to normal lungs
-restriction of airway
-loss of divisions between alveoli
The most sensitive receptors that regulate ventilation are.....
pH sensors in the medulla
In normal airway, the viscosity of the mucus lining the lumen is maintained by a balance between:
Cl- secretion that moves water into the mucus and Na+ reabsorption that removes water from the mucus
Acid secretion into the stomach is mediated by:
H+ K+ ATPase in the apical membrane of parietal cells of gastric glands
Secretory cells in the small intestine are located in what structures?
crypts of Lieberkuhn
Respiratory exchange of O2 and CO2 would FIRST take place where?
Respiratory bronchioles
The formation of HCl occurs in:
-pyloric region of stomach
-brunner's glands
-intracellular canaliculi of parietal cells
-glycocalyx
intracellular canaliculi of parietal cells
Proteolytic digestive enzymes are produced by which of the following?
-enteroendocrine cells
-chief cells
-goblet cells
-brunners glands
-chief cells
What is the chronic obstructive pulmonary disease characterized by an abnormally large capacitance?
Emphysema
Commonly used local anesthetics are amides with pKa values between 7.7 and 9.1. How does the pKa affect time to onset of action?
The higher the pKa the slower the onset of action
Pulmonary function tests typically ask a patient to inspire a maximal amount of air and then expire as much as possible. The volume of air that is expired is the:
residual volume
What are the drugs of choice for treating anxiety and insomnia?
benzodiazepines
barbituates
levodopa
phenytoin
valproic acid
Benzodiazepines
Esomaprazole (Nexium) is used to treat patients with acid reflux disease and peptic ulcers. What is the mechanism of action for this drug?
Inhibits the H+ K+ ATPase
Which of the following does NOT stimulate gastric acid secretion?
gastrin
norepinephrine
histamine
acetylcholine
Norepinephrine
Tricyclic antidepressants may also block alpha 1 adrenergic receptors. This will result in:
hypotension
hypertension
hyperkalemia
hypokalemia
HYPOtension
Advair has salmeterol in it. What class of drug is salmeterol?

muscarinic receptor antagonist
beta 1 adrenergic agonist
beta 2 adrenergic agonist
beta 2 adrenergic antagonist
beta 2 adrenergic agonist
For an inhalation anesthetic, A lower minimum alveolar concentration (MAC) indicates what?
lower MAC indicates a more potent anesthetic
How do NSAIDs work?

inhib of phospholipase a2 release of arachidonic acid

inhib of the conversion of arachidonic acid to prostaglandins

inhib of the conversion of leucotrienes to prostaglandins
inhib of the conversion of arachidonic acid to prostaglandins
Contraction of the internal intercostal and abdominal recti muscles will allow one to utilize what component of lung volume?

residual volume
inspiratory reserve volume
expiratory reserve volume
inspiratory capacity
expiratory reserve volume
Zileuton is a 5'lipoxygenase inhibitor. It is used to treat:

asthma, inhibiting leukotriene synthesis from arachidonic acid

respiratory distress syndrome, stimulating the synth of surfactant

asthma, blocking muscarinic receptors
asthma, inhibiting leukotriene synthesis from arachidonic acid
Following an injury, a given nociceptive stimulus may cause pain in tissue adjacent to the original site of injury and even light touch is painful. This condition is termed.....
Secondary hyperalgesia
Halothane is a potent inhalation anesthetic but has been discontinued because?
it has excessive hepatoxicity
Atropine and scopolamine are antisialogogues. What class of drugs are these?

alpha 1 adrenergic agonists
nicotinic agonists
muscarinic agonist
muscarinic antagonists
muscarinic antagonists
Epinephrine given with a local anesthetic promotes vasoconstriction by its actions on ________ receptors but the cardiovascular complications result from stimulation of _______ receptors.
alpha 1 adrenergic

beta 1 adrenergic
The sensation of hot and cold stimuli is mediated by what class of membrane proteins that also are thought to be involved in the stimulation of nociceptors?

voltage gated Na+ channels

GABA receptors

muscarinic receptors

transient receptor potential (TRP) channels
transient receptor potential (TRP) channels
What substance(s) produced and released following tissue damage contribute to the activation of nociceptors?

H+ and K+
substance P
prostaglandin E2
bradykinin
all of the above
all of the above
What combination of effects will provide the greatest hyperpolarization and reduced neuronal activity?

activation of GABA channels and inhibition of nicotinic receptors

inhibition of both GABA channels and nicotinic receptors

inhibition of GABA channels and activation of nicotinic receptors
activation of GABA channels and inhibition of nicotinic receptors
At the END of a tidal breath, the partial pressures of respiratory gasses in the dead space (trachea and bronchi) will be:

equal to atmospheric air
alveolar air
equal to that of venous blood
alveolar air
Pain threshold refers to
the lowest level of pain a patient will detect
Major reason for adding a vasoconstrictor to local anesthetic?
to reduce system toxicity
Most allergic reactions to local anesthetic are what type?
Type IV or delayed hypersensitivity rxns
Nausea and vomiting associated with opioid drugs is result of simtulation of the....
chemoreceptor trigger zone