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15 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
hypertrophy
-incr cell size
-result from incr cell demand
-e.g. working out; cardiac muscle d/t hypertension; kidney removal; prostate; liver txplant
atrophy
-decr cell size
-d/t decr in cell demand or ischemia
-e.g. stroke, neuropathy, disuse, malnutrition
hyperplasia
-incr cell number
-result from incr cell demand
-e.g. mammary gland, uterus d/r pregnancy; cancer; calluses
metaplasia
-change in cell type
-reversible
dysplasia
-disordered cell growth
-usu. seen in cancers (esp URT; cervix)
characteristics of apoptosis
-programmed
-tidy, neat, no inflammatn
-activated by caspases; high levels of p53; or withdrawal of "survival" signals in extracellular matrix
-e.g. embryo- getting rid of webbed feet; neutrophil, macrophage breakdown
ischemia
interruption of blood flow
hypoxia
lack of oxygen, usu. d/t hypoxia
types of injuries to which cells are susceptible
1. physical
2. chemical
3. radiation
4. nutritional injury
5. biological agents
changes d/t aging vs. disease
aging:
-decr proliferative capacity of stem cells
-decr functional reserve & ability to adapt to environmental demands
4 main tissue types & characteristics
1. epithelial (highest degree change d/t stress b/c high turnover incr develpmnt cancers)
2. connective (highest degree of differentiation e.g. blood, tendon, ligaments)
3.nervous (post-mitotic, can't regenerate, excitable)
4. muscle (post-mitotic, dsn't heal well)
causes of hydropic swelling
-malfunction of Na/K pump causes increase of water
list some intracellular accumulations that may result from cellular damage
-fats (e.g. in liver d/t high alcohol consumption), water, glycogen (diabetes), proteins
differentiate types of necrosis
-coagulative (clot, protein gets denatured, kidneys, adrenal glands)
-liquefactive: usu. in brain b/c dsn't have a lot of support, lots degradative enzymes
-caseous: cheese-like, lung tiss. d/t TB, glandular tiss. w/ spprting tiss.
-fat: pancreatitis or trauma --> digestive enzymes from pancreas or tiss. attacks adipose tiss.
describe wet, gas, dry gangrene
--> cell death involving large area of tissue

wet
-occurs when tiss. still moist, usu. bacterial infectns

dry
-coagulative necrosis, cell shrinks, d/t decr blood flow (e.g. diabetes)

gas
-CO caused by clostridium makes tissues spongy