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31 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Vomiting in bulimia nervosa:
produces hypokalemic metabolic alkalosis
Leptin gene:
often defective in obesity
Increase in VLDL:
causes decrease in HDL
Vitamin A Deficiency:
Impaired night vision, blindness (squamous metaplasia of corneal epithelium), Follicular hyperkeratosis (loss of sebaceous gland function), pneumonia, growth retardation, renal calculi.
Vitamin A Toxicity:
Papilledema and seizures (due to an increase in intracranial pressure), hepatitis, bone pain (due to periosteal proliferation)
Vitamin D deficiency:
Pathologic fractures, excess osteoid, bow legs. Children: rickets; craniotabes (soft skull bones); rachitic rosary (defective mineralization and overgrowth of epiphyseal cartilage in ribs). Adults: osteomalacia. Continious muscle contraction (tetany b/c decrease CA2+)
Vitamin D toxicity:
Hypercalcemia with metastatic calcification, renal calculi
Vitamin E deficiency:
Hemolytic anemia (damage to RBC membrane). Peripheral neuropathy, degeneration of posterior column (poor joint sensation) and spinocerebellar tract (ataxia).
Vitamin E toxicity:
Decreased synthesis of vitamin K-dependent procoagulant factors; synergist effect with warfarin anticoagulation
Vitamin K deficiency:
Newborns: hemorrhagic disease of newborn (CNS bleeding, ecchymoses). Adults: gastrointestinal bleeding, ecchymoses; prolonged prothrombin time and partial thromboplastin time.
Vitamin K toxicity:
Hemolytic anemia and jaundice in newborns if mother receives excess vitamin K
Thiamine (vitamin B1) deficiency:
Dry beriberi, Wernicke's syndrome, Korsakoff's syndrome, Wet beriberi.
Dry beriberi:
peripheral neuropathy (demyelination)
Wenicke's syndrome:
ataxia, confusion, nystagmus, mamillary body hemorrhage
Korsakoff's syndrome:
antegrade or retrograde amnesia; demyelination in limbic system
Wet beriberi:
congestive cardiomyopathy with biventricular failure
Riboflavin (vitamin B2) deficiency:
Corneal neovascularization, glossitis, cheilosis, angular stomatitis
Niacin (vitamin B3) deficiency:
Pellagra: diarrhea, dermatitis, dementia
Pyridoxine (vitamin B6) deficiency:
Sideroblastic anemia (microcytic anemia with ringed sideroblasts), convulsions, peripheral neuropathy
Cobalamin (vitamin B12 deficiency):
Megaloblastic anemia, neurologic disease (posterior column and lateral corticospinal tract demyelination), glossitis
Folic Acid deficiency:
Megaloblastic anemia, glossitis
Biotin deficiency:
dermatitis, alopecia, lactic acidosis
Ascorbic acid (vitamin C) deficiency:
weak capillaries and venules, skin ecchymoses, perifollicular hemorrhage, hemarthrosis, bleeding gums, anemia, loosened teeth, glossitis, poor wound healing.
Corn-based diets:
deficient in tryptophan and niacin
Three D's of pellagra:
dermatitis, diarrhea, dementia
Chromium deficiency:
Metabolic: impaired glucose tolerance, peripheral neuropathy
Copper deficiency:
blood: microcytic anemia (cofactor in ferroxidase). Vessels: aortic dissection (weak elastic tissue). Metabolic: poor wound healing (cofactor in lysyl oxidase)
Fluoride deficiency:
Teeth: dental caries
Iodide deficiency:
Thyroid: thyroid enlargement (goiter), hypothyroidism
Selenium deficiency:
Muscle: muscle pain and weakness, dilated (congestive) cardiomyopathy
Zinc deficiency:
Metabolic: poor wound healing (cofactor in collagenase). Mouth: dysgeusia (cannot taste), anosmia (cannot smell), perioral rash. Children: hypogonadism, growth retardation