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85 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Simple cuboidal epithelium of the ovary is called:
Germinal epithelium
What is the germinal epithelium continuous with?
The serosa of the mesovarium - broad ligament
Do cells of the germinal epithelium give rise to gametes?
What is the layer of dense fibrous CT just deep to the epithelium?
Tunica albuginea
What are the peripherally located oocytes with a squamous epithelium called?
Primordial follicles
What are the epithelial cells that surround a primordial follicle called?
Follicular cells
How do you differentiate a Primordial follicle from a Primary follicle if both are in the cortex?
Primordial = squamous
Primary = cuboidal
What important feature develops in the primary follicle?
The zona pellucida
What is the ZP?
A homogenous eosinophilic noncellular layer of glycoproteins and proteoglycans
Where is the ZP?
Under the innermost layer of follicular cells - it is essentially the membrane of the egg.
Why does it look like some primary follicle's oocytes lack nuclei?
Because they're out of the plane.
What is the way to tell apart a 2ndary follicle from primary?
It has an antrum cavity
What is the layer of cells lining the antrum cavity?
Membrana granulosa
What are the several layers of cells that border the membrana granulosa externally?
Theca interna
What do theca cells secrete?
Estrogen precursors (androgens)
What determines which 2ndary follicles will become mature?
Their density of FSH receptors
What is the stalk of cells supporting the oocyte in the mature follicle?
Cumulus oophorus
What is the layer of cells surrounding the oocyte?
Corona radiata
What is the most external layer that becomes evident in the mature follicle?
Theca externa
What does the Theca externa consist of?
Several layers of spindle shaped smooth muscle and CT cells and collagen fibers
What are degenerated follicles called?
Atretic follicles
What makes Atretic follicles easy to identify?
If they are from primary follicles and the zona pellucida has collapsed on itself - pink and smooshy
If an atretic follicle has no pink zona pellucida what do you know?
It was derived from a primordial follicle
What is the eosinophilic material that occupies the follicular cavity after ovulation?
Connective tissue-type infiltrate
What is this former follicular cavity called?
The corpus luteum
What cells surround the former follicular cavity?
Granulosa lutein cells
What do Granulosa lutein cells look like?
-Extensive cytoplasm
-Round nuclei
What cells are in the darkly staining CT that radiates into the Granulosa lutein cells?
Theca lutein cells
How do the Theca lutein cells compare to Granulosa lutein cells?
Thecas are smaller
What is the function of the corpus luteum?
Secretion of progesterone to maintain the endometrial lining during pregnancy
What are the 3 secretory products of the corpus luteum?
When a corpus luteum is replaced by scar tissue it becomes a...
Corpus albicans
How can you tell if something is a Corpus Albicans or an atretic follicle?
Atretic follicles have cuboidal follicular cells at their edge, corpus albicans just look dead
What is the first funnel shaped portion of the uterine tube?
What are the finger-like projections from the infundibulum?
What part of the oviduct comes after the infundibulum?
The ampulla
How much is the ampulla?
Outer 2/3 of the duct
What type of epithelium lines the ampulla?
Ciliated and nonciliated simple columnar
What is the proximal 1/3 of the oviduct?
The isthmus
What do you notice about the isthmus?
The lumen becomes much less complicated
What type of epithelium is in the isthmus?
Same as in the ampulla
What surrounds the isthmus?
Smooth muscle
What type of epithelium is in the endocervix?
Same as in the oviduct; Simple columnar
What type of epithelium is in the exocervix?
Nonkeratinized stratified squamous
What is the area where it goes from exo to endocervix called?
Transitional zone
Why is it significant?
It's where cervical cancer can develop
How does the apical surface of the endometrium look during the menstrual phase?
How does the apical surface of the endometrium look during the proliferative phase?
Definetely not disrupted; the glands are circular in cross section
What surface specializations do the gland columnar epithelial cells have during prolif phase?
What days doe the Early secretory phase occur on during the menstrual cycle?
Day 15-18
How do the glands look in cross section during the early secretory phase? In the late phase?
-in both early and late phases
As the uterus enters the secretory phase of the menstrual cycle what key event is occurring within the ovarian cycle?
How does the appearance of the functional zone differ in the early vs late secretory phases?
It is more edematous in the late phase
Why does the endometrium become so thick in the late secretory phase?
Because of the influence of both estrogen and progesterone.
What is deep to the endometrium?
What does the myometrium consist of?
Smooth muscle cell layers in various orientations
Would you expect to see more or less smooth muscle in the pregnant uterus?
What type of intercellular specializations would you expect these cells to possess?
Gap junctions
Which pituitary hormone are the smooth muscle cells in the pregnant uterus a target of?
On the test what should we call the breasts?
Mammary glands
What are the mammary glands classified as?
Combound tubuloalveolar glands
What is the primary organization of the mammary glands?
Lobes - 15 to 25 of them
What subdivides the glands into lobes?
CT and Adipose tissue
What are the septations that divide lobes called?
Interlobular CT
What are individual lobes divided into? By what?
Lobules by intralobular CT
What are lobules made up of?
Several alveoli and the coalescing ducts that drain them
What are alveoli analagous to?
What do the ducts coalesce into?
Lactiferous ducts
What is the terminal expansion of each lactiferous duct?
Lactiferous sinus
What does a resting mammary gland in an old lady look like?
Very undeveloped, difficult to see alveoli
What is abundant in a resting mammary gland?
-Dense fibrous CT
-Adipose tissue
What happens to the amount of connective tissue in pregnancy?
It is less
How is the alveolar epithelium of the lactating mammary gland organized?
Into two layers
-Lumenal = Cuboidal epithelial cells
-Basal = Myoepithelial cells
What are myoepithelial cells?
Modified smooth muscle cells that are just under the cuboidal epithelium and still atop the basement membrane.
How does the connective tissue appearance change in lactating breast tissue?
It is much thinner than in inactive or even pregnancy breasts.
What becomes prominent in the alveoli of lactating breast tissue?
Vacuoles leftover by lipid droplets
What is the lipid component of milk secretion called?
Apocrine secretion
What is the protein component of milk secretion called?
Merocrine secretion
What is lactation regulated by?
The secretion of Prolactin from lactotrophs in the anterior pituitary
What is prolactin release normally inhibited by?
What does Suckling block?
Dopamine release
What stimulates the myoepithelial cells of the alveoli to contract?
What does myoepithelial contraction facilitate?
Milk ejection
What do male patients with cirrhosis of the liver frequently exhibit?
Why do male patients exhibit gynecomastia?
The liver normally breaks down androstenedione, and when it fails to do so, the amount of circulating estrogen increases and leads to mammary development.