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49 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What are the 4 components of the external genitalia?
-Clitoris
-Labia minora
-Vestibule
-Labia majora
What type of tissue are the mammary glands?
Modified Apocrine sweat glands
What changes occur in the prepuberal mammary gland when estrogen rises at puberty?
-Fat accumulates
-Ducts branch
What are the 2 main types of tissue in the mammary glands?
-Parenchyma
-Stroma
What makes up the mammary gland parenchyma?
12-20 lobes of duct tissue
What type of epithelium lines the mammary ducts?
-Small ducts
-Large ducts
Small: simple cuboidal to columnar
Large: stratified cuboidal
What is at the beginning of the ducts?
Alveoli
What do several alveoli and their terminal ductules empty into?
one terminal ductule
What is a terminal ductule and the alveoli that supply it called?
A lobule
When does the lobule development become more than rudimentary?
When the gland is active
What type of cells are found between the duct epithelial cells and their basement membrane?
Myoepithelial cells
What are myoepithelial cells?
Modified smooth muscle cells.
Where is the stroma in the mammary glands?
Between lobes
What is the stroma made of and what does Dr. wagner call it?
-Connective tissue + fat
-Suspensory ligaments/coopers
What is the difference between interlobular and intralobular CT?
Inter = dense and white
Intra = loose and has lymphs, mast cells, and macrophages.
What is each of the 15-25 lobes of the mammary gland drained by?
A lactiferous duct
Where do the lactiferous ducts open?
At the nipple
What type of epithelium lines the lactiferous ducts?
STRATIFIED cuboidal
What is the expansion of the lactiferous duct near its end called?
Lactiferous sinus
What is in the nipple?
Smooth muscle and CT
What is the breast covered with?
Hmmm skin maybe?
What type of epithelium covers the nipple?
Stratified squamous
What type of glands are in the nipple?
Sebaceous only
What type of glands are in the areola?
Sebaceous and sweat
What happens to the mammary gland during pregnancy? What hormone causes the changes?
-Ducts proliferate
-Lining cells become TALLER (columnar)
-Estrogen
What happens to the alveoli during pregnancy?
They enlarge
What happens to the alveoli during lactation after birth?
They proliferate
What are the 2 secretions in breast milk?
-Merocrine - protein
-Apocrine - lipid
What is the initial milk from late pregnancy to 5 days post partum called?
Colostrum
How is colostrum different from milk?
-More protein
-Less carbs and K
What allows for prolactin mediated milk secretion after birth?
A decrease in progesterone and estrogen
What stimulates prolactin release?
Suckling
What does suckling also stimulate?
Oxytocin which stimulates milk 'let down' or ejection
What does the mammary gland look like in old age?
Involuted
What increases and decreases in the mammary gland in old age?
-Increase in elastin and fibroblasts
-Decrease in ducts
What is the most common clinical problem with the breast?
Fibroadenosis
What is Fibroadenosis related to?
Repeated exposure to variable estrogen and progesterone levels
What is fibroadenosis?
Increased duct and stromal tissue which form cysts
When Duct cells transform what do they often retain? What is this called?
-Retain Est/Prog receptors
-Carcinoma
What are the predominant changes happening during the Follicular/proliferative phase?
-Estrogen stimulates FSH/LH when follicle becomes dominant
-Preparing for ovulation
What are the predominant changes happening during the Luteal/Secretory phase?
-Progesterone is stimulating formation of the corpus luteum
-Preparation for implantation
What is Anovulatory Cycling?
-Lack of ovulation
-Lack of progesterone
-Continued proliferative phase and Estrogen, so weird bleeding
What is Primary amenorrhea?
Never menstruated
What is Secondary amenorrhea?
Menstruated, but then stopped
What is Dysmenorrhea?
Painful menstruation
What is Endometriosis?
Abnormally located endometrial tissue
What is a common female reproductive infection?
PID - pelvic inflammatory disease
What organs are more common to develop Carcinoma?
-Endometrial
-Cervical
-Ovarian
What are Uterine Fibroids? What are they stimulated by?
Estrogen-stimulated
-Benign
-Growths of smooth muscle lieomyomas