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45 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
How is the Uterus organized? (into 3 things)
1. Serosa
2. Myometrium
3. Endometrium
What is the serosa that covers the uterus?
The broad ligament
How many layers are in the myometrium? What are they?
What is the smooth muscle cell length dependent on?
What is the effect of Progesterone and Relaxin on uterine smooth muscle?
Quiets it
What is the effect of oxytocin on uterine smooth muscle?
Contracts it
What is the inner lining of the uterus called?
What 2 zones make up the endometrium? How much of it?
-Functional - apical 2/3
-Basal - deeper 1/3
Which of the endometrial zones gets menstruated?
Only the functional
What arteries supply blood to the functional zone?
Spiral arteries
What arteries supply blood to the basal zone?
Straight arteries
Which arteries are sensitive to Estrogen?
Spiral arteries
What does constriction of the spiral arteries cause?
Blanching of the endometrium, and loss of the functional zone.
What are the 3 phases of the menstrual cycle in the endometrium?
1. Proliferative phase
2. Secretory phase
3. Menstrual phase
What is traditionally considered the first 5 days of the cycle?
Menstrual phase
How long are the proliferative and secretory phases?
Prolif = days 5-15
Secretory = days 16-26
When does the endometrium change in thickness the most?
During the proliferative phase
What do the glands in the endometrium look like during the proliferative phase? What do they accumulate?
-Look straight but wavy
-Accumulate glycogen
What happens to the endometrial glands during the secretory phase? Why?
-They become coiled & sacculated
-They begin to accumulate glycogen and other carbs
What changes take place in the outer stromal cells during the secretory phase?
They become thicker and epitheloid - they're going to have to become the new functional zone you see.
What do we call the zone where the outer stromal cells become thickened?
The compact zone
What are the changes in the secretory phase preparing the endometrium for?
What happens to the thickness of the endometrium during the menstrual phase? Why?
It goes from its full 5-6 mm to about 1 mm because the Functional zone is sloughed
What causes the sloughing of the functional zone?
Spiral artery constriction caused by estrogen
What type of epithelium lines the internal Cervix?
Simple columnar epithelium
What do we call the cervix where the epithelium is simple columnar?
What do we call the cervix facing the vagina?
What type of epithelium lines the exocervix?
Stratified squamous nonkeratinized
Is the cervix mucosa sloughed during menstruation?
Is there smooth muscle in the cervix?
not much
What is the cervical mucus like during the proliferative phase? Why? What hormone causes it?
-Watery and abundant
-To allow sperm/ovum to meet
-Influence of Estrogen
What is the cervical mucus like during the secretory phase? Why? What hormone causes it?
-Thick and scant
-To prevent sperm transport
-Influence of progesterone
estrog water/abundant

progest thick/scant
What is the area between the Endocervix and Exocervix?
The transitional zone
What is the significance of the transitional zone?
It's where pap smears are done to look for cervical cancer.
Why does cervical cancer develop in the transitional zone?
Because of epithelial transformation of the simple columnar cells to stratified squamous.
What are the 4 morphological divisions of the oviduct?
1. Infundibulum/Fimbrae
2. Ampulla
3. Isthmus
4. Intramural
What is the outer 2/3 of the oviduct? Inner 1/3?
Outer 2/3 = Ampulla
Inner 1/3 = Isthmus
What do we mean when we say outer or inner?
With reference to the uterus
What is the intramural oviduct?
Within the uterus
What happens to the appearance of the lumen of the oviduct as you go closer to the uterus?
It appears less highly folded and less complex
What type of epithelial cells line the oviduct?
Simple ciliated and nonciliated Columnar epithelial cells
What promotes ciliogenesis and mitosis of the epithelial cells?
What stimulates smooth muscle contraction and secretory activity of the oviduct?
What type of mucosa lines the vagina?
Stratified squamous nonkeratinized