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59 Cards in this Set

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What are the internal organs of the female reproductive system?
-ovaries
-duct system
What are the external organs of the female reproductive system?
-External genitalia
-Mammary gland
What are the 3 normal functions of the female reproductive system?
1. Produce the female gamete
2. Produce the female sex hormones
3. receieve the male gamete
What are the functions of the female reproductive tract related to childbearing?
-Provide a suitable environment for gamete union
-Allow for implantation and embryonic development
-Nourish the newborn infant
How is the ovary organized? (3 things)
-Covery
-Cortex
-Medulla
What are the coverings of the ovary?
-Germinal epithelium
-Tunica albuginea
Is the germinal epithelium truly germinal?
No
Is the tunica albuginea visible?
no
What is ovarian follicle development?
A series of continuous changes involving oocytes, follicle cells, and stromal cells.
What are follicle cells?
Another name for Granulosa cells
What is a Primordial follicle?
A primary oocyte and the follicle cells surrounding it
Do follicle cells in the primordial follicle have a basement membrane beneath them?
No
What are groups of primordial follicles connected by?
Intercellular bridges
What is the large nucleus at the center of the oocyte in a primordial follicle called?
The Germinal Vesicle
What is the step in ovarian follicle development after the Primordial follicle?
Primary Follicle
What are the 2 types of Primary follicles?
-Unilaminar PF
-Multilaminar PF
What shape are the granulosa cells in a primordial follicle?
More squamous
What shape are the granulosa cells in a primary follicle?
Cuboidal
What distinguishes a Unilaminar PF from a Multilaminar PF?
Unilaminar has a single layer of cuboidal granulosa cells; multi has multi
What forms under the single layer of cuboidal follicle cells in the Unilaminar Primary follicle?
A basement membrane
When are the follicle cells called Granulosa cells?
When it gets to the multilaminar PF stage.
What begins to appear in the Multilaminar PF?
The Zona Pellucida
What do condensing stromal cells in the Primary follicle form?
A Theca interna
What is the prominent feature that develops in the Secondary follicle?
The antrum
What is the antrum created by?
The coalescence of spaces filled with Follicular fluid
What is follicular fluid?
A plasma transudate rich in Hyaluronic acid
What do the stromal cells finish forming in the Secondary follicle?
The Theca interna and Externa.
What do the Theca contain?
A capillary plexus
What happens to only one of the 2ndary follicles?
It matures into the Mature Graafian follicle
How big is the Mature follicle?
It extends the full thickness of the ovarian cortex!
What hormone stimulated the development of these follicles?
FSH
What shuts off FSH to prevent more follicles from developing?
Inhibin secreted from the dominant follicle itself.
When can Follicle atresia occur?
At anytime during follicle development
What will form a visible scar in the ovary?
If the atretic follicle is primordial or primary.
What will form a scar and a glassy membrane, and cause the Theca cells to enlarge?
If the follicle undergoing atresia is an antral follicle.
When do the events needed to allow for ovulation begin to occur?
24 hrs before the actual ovulation
What needs to happen to the oocyte to get it ready for ovulation?
Maturation
What does "Maturation" of the oocyte consist of? (3 steps)
1. Nuclear breakdown
2. Meiosis
3. Re-freeze and arrest in the 2nd metaphase
What changes occur in the ovarian wall to get ready for ovulation?
It thins due to the action of collagenases
What do the follicle cells secrete in order to help thin and dissolve the basement membrane?
Tissue plasminogen activator
When the follicle ruptures at the surface of the ovary, what breaks free?
-Ovary
-Corona radiata cells
How long will the oocyte swim in the peritoneum?
Just briefly
What will happen to the empty follicle from which the oocyte just left?
It becomes the corpus luteum!
What important cells remain behind in the corpus luteum?
-Granulosa cells
-Theca cells
What IS the corpus luteum?
A temporary endocrine gland
What invades the collapsed follicle? What do we now call it?
Blood vessels and fibrous CT - the Corpus luteum
What cells are located centrally in the corpus luteum? Peripherally?
Granulosa cells = Central
Theca cells = Peripheral
What do the Granulosa cells contain? What else do they secrete?
-Contain Relaxin granules
-Secrete Prog/Estrogen
What are the Granulosa cells analagous to in the male? What are they both stimulated by?
-Analogous to Sertoli cells
-Stimulated by FSH
What are the Theca cells capable of secreting (according to bolender)? What are they analagous to in male? What are they both stimulated by?
-Secrete Progesterone
-Analagous to Leydig cells
-Stim'd by LH
If pregnancy does not occur, what is the lifetime of the Corpus luteum of menstruation?
10-12 days
What is needed in order to maintain the corpus luteum?
LH (?)
What happens to the corpus luteum after 10-12 days?
It forms a scar called the Corpus albicans.
What maintains the CL of pregnancy?
hCG - the other leutinizing hormone
What color is a dead corpus albicans?
White
What are the 3 functions of FSH?
1. Mediates follicle cell proliferation
2. Stimulates aromatase activity in follicle cells
3. Stimulates follicle fluid secretion
What are the 4 functions of LH?
1. Stimulates theca cell production of androgen
2. Promotes follicle vascularization
3. Promotes preovulatory events
4. Maintains the CL
What is the function of Estrogen?
It increases LH/FSH receptors on the Theca and Follicle cells
What does Progesterone do?
Locally mediates ovulation