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68 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
2 types of input fibers to the cerebellum:
-Mossy fibers
-Climbing fibers
Where do the mossy fibers come from?
-Spinal cord
What type of info is in the mossy fibers?
What do the mossy fibers stimulate?
Granule cells
What type of firing do mossy fibers have? What do they need to do?
Simple and weak; need to summate
How do mossy fibers encode sensory information?
By changing firing frequency
Where do Climbing fibers come from?
Olivary nucleus
What types of info are in Climbing fibers?
What do climbing fibers stimulate?
Purkinje cells in a 1:1 manner
What type of firing do climbing fibers have? What do they need to do?
Complex firing - strong, no need to summate.
What is the function of climbing fiber information being given to the cerebellum?
Motor learning and cell synchronization
Which cerebellar peduncle carries efferent information?
Superior cerebellar peduncle
Which cerebellar peduncle carries afferent information?
Inferior cerebellar peduncle
What does the middle cerebellar peduncle carry?
Info from the pons
What is cell synchronization in the cerebellum?
The synchronization of all the purkinje cells with each other
What do the cerebellar purkinje cells do?
Influence the activity of the deep cerebellar nuclei
Why are the deep cerebellar nuclei important?
They are the main output (efferents) from the cerebellum.
How do the deep cerebellar nuclei in turn affect the purkinje cells?
By giving inhibitory negative feedback onto the inferior olive so that only a subset of purkinjes is activated.
What are the deep cerebellar nuclei, medial to lateral?
What are the interposed nuclei?
Globose + Emboliform
Where is the vestibulocerebellum?
In the floculonodular lobe
Where is the spinocerebellum?
In the Vermis + Intermediate cerebellar hemisphere
Where is the Cerebrocerebellum?
In the lateral cerebellar hemisphere.
What is most phylogenetically
-Old part of cerebellum?
-New part of cerebellum?
Oldest = vestibulocerebellum

Newest = Cerebrocerebellum
From what 5 places does the Vestibulocerebellum recieve afferent information?
-Semicircular canals
-Otolith organs
-Vestibular nuclei
-Superior colliculi
-Visual cortex
2 functions the vestibulocerebellum is involved with:
-Eye movement
Where does the vestibulocerebellum send output to?
Vestibular nuclei
Where do the vestibular nuclei project to?
The Vestibulospinal tract and Medial Longitudinal Fasciculus
What are 4 things that result from lesions of the vestibulocerebellum?
-Ataxic gait
-Abnormal eye movements
Where does the Spinocerebellum recieve its input from?
The Spinocerebellar tracts
What type of information does the spinocerebellum recieve from its spinocerebellar input?
-Somatosensory via mossy fibers
-Visual, auditory, vestibular
From what 2 places does the Spinocerebellum give output?
-Intermediate zone
What does Vermis Spinocerebellar output control? What does it regulate?
AXIAL AND PROXIMAL MOTOR control to regulate ONGOING EXECUTION of movement.
What does Intermediate Zone control?
The distal limbs
Major thing to remember about the intermediate zone output:
Double decussation - lesions will cause IPSILATERAL DEFICITS
4 symptoms of an Intermediate Zone Spinocerebellar Lesion:
Ipsilateral - all on one side:
-Intention tremor
-Limb ataxia
What is an intention tremor?
One that gets worse when you're moving
What is the opposite of an intention tremor?
A resting tremor that goes away when you move like in Parkinson's.
What is Limb ataxia?
Movement that is jerky and not smooth.
What is dysmetria?
Inability to hit a target - loss of precision in movement.
So where will symptoms appear in a lesion of the Fastigial nucleus?
Where will symptoms appear in a lesion of the Interposed nuclei?
What is the double decussation that causes ipsilateral deficits when the interposed nuclei are lesioned?
1. The superior cerebellar peduncles cross in midbrain.
2. The anterior spinocerebellar tract crosses at its start down in the spinal cord
What are the tracts that the Intermediate zone spinocerebellum acts on to control distal limb movement?
-Lateral Corticospinal
What are the two ways that the spinocerebellum alters muscle movements?
-Feed-forward response
-Feedback response
What is the feedforward response?
The spinocerebellum tells an antagonist muscle to contract in anticipation of an agonist action to prevent overshoot.
What happens when the feedforward response is not working?
Muscle movement doesn't stop in time and overshoots the target.
What occurs in response to overshoot?
Feedback response - a spinal tendon stretch reflex.
What is the problem with relying on feedback response for movement control?
It is too late - you've already overshot the target.
What type of afferent input does the cerebrocerebellum get?
How does the afferent input to the cerebrocerebellum get there?
Via the pontine nuclei outputs through the Middle Cerebellar Peduncle
After the pontine input via the Middle cerebellar peduncle gets to the Dentate nucleus what happens?
The dentate nucleus projects to two places
2 Projections of the Dentate nucleus:
1. Motor/Premotor cortex
2. Cerebellum (feedback)
How does the Dentate nucleus efferent project to the Motor and Premotor cortex?
It exits via the Superior Cerebellar Peduncle and projects via the contralateral VL of the Thalamus.
What is the feedback circuit for the Dentate feedback to the cerebellum?
Projects to the contralateral Red nucleus, inferior olive, then back to the cerebellum.
Where will deficits be seen if the dentate nucleus is lesioned? Why?
On the ipsilateral side - because there's a double decussation here too.
What will lesions of the Cerebrocerebellum result in?
Movement decomposition
What is Movement decomposition?
Muscle contractions in series and not in parallel.
In general what will movements be like if the cerebrocerebellum is lesioned?
If a patient says "movements of my right arm are done subconsciously but i have to think out each movement of the left arm" where is the lesion?
On the left cerebellum.
Deficits seen in lesions of the rostral midline:
Stance and gait
Deficits seen in lesions of the Caudal midline:
Trunk posture and equilibrium
Deficits seen in lesions of the lateral cerebellum:
Ipsilateral limb functions will be impaired.
Deficits seen in lesions of the peduncles:
Same as in the lesions to the cerebellar cortex itself
What are the lesions that produce the most severe deficits in cerebellar function?
Superior cerebellar peduncle and deep nuclei lesions (efferent)
What area of the cerebellum is especially vulnerable to alcohol?
The rostral midline
So what symptoms are commonly seen in longterm alcoholics?
Atrophic vermis - impaired stance and gait.
What are the 3 primary functions of the cerebrocerebellum?