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49 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Define cell homeostasis
Maintainence of the cell's normal structures and functions by the integrated action of many complementary negative feedback regulatory mechanisms
2 Requirements for maintaining cell homeostasis:
1. Regln of extra/intracellular chemical environments by membrane-bound structures & mechanisms
2. Constant input of metabolic energy
Is the cell in an equilibrium or steady state?
Steady state
Concentration of sodium
-protein free plasma
plasma =142
protein free plasma =153
interstitium = 145
cell = 15
Concentration of potassium
-protein free plasma
plasma = 4.4
protein free plasma = 4.7
interstitium = 4.5
cell = 120
Concentration of calcium
-protein free plasma
plasma = 1.2
protein free plasma = 1.3
interstitium = 1.2
cell = 10^-7
Concentration of chloride
-protein free plasma
plasma = 102
protein free plasma = 110
interstitium = 116
cell = 20
What is the concentration of magnesium
-Protein free plasma
-Plasma = 0.6 (ionized)
-Protein free plasma = 0.6
-Interstitium = 0.55
-Cell = 1
How is magnesium functionally important?
It serves as an enzyme co-factor in many biochemical reactions
What is the functional importance of chloride?
To preserve electroneutrality for Na especially in plasma/ISF.
What is the concentration of Chloride in
Plasma = 102 mM
ISF = 116 mm
What is the function of bicarbonate?
To buffer plasma, ISF, and Cellular pH via renal and respiratory systems.
3 Ways to express average plasma protein concentration:
-7 g/dl
-1 mM
-14 mEq/L
Why are solute concentrations different in ISF vs. plasma?
Because of plasma proteins
2 Ways that plasma proteins alter ion concentration in ISF:
1. Occupy 7% plasma volume
2. Proteins are net negative
How does the 7% volume of proteins in plasma alter ion concentration?
Ions are dissolved in only 93% of the volume of plasma; when protein is removed it allows for there to be more solute so ion conc. increases.
How does the net neg charge of proteins affect ion concentration?
-Proteins hang onto cations, so the plasma conc of anions is higher than cations
Normal plasma concentration of Glucose:
(mM or mg/dl)
-5.5 mm
-85-90 mg/dl
What is the normal pH of
Plasma = 7.4
Cell = 7.2
What is the normal Plasma osmolality?
-per kg of water
-per liter of plasma
290/kg H2O
274/L Plasma
Normal concentration range of oxygen:
35-45 mm HG
Normal concentration range of CO2
35-45 mm Hg
Normal concentration range of Sodium in ECF
138-146 mM
Normal concentration range of Potassium
3.8-5.0 mM
Normal concentration range of Calcium
1.0 - 1.4 mM
Normal concentration range of Chloride in ECF
103-112 mM
Normal concentration range of Bicarb ion in ECF
24 - 32 mM
Normal concentration range of Glucose in ECF
75-95 mg/dl
Normal temperature range of ECF:
98 - 98.8
Normal pH range of ECF:
2 Ways that Hypokalemia can occur:
-net loss from body
-altered distribution in body
4 ways that K+ can be lost from the body:
1. Kidney tubules
2. GI tract
3. Skin
4. Inadequate diet intake
3 reasons why K+ would be lost at the kidney tubules:
-Tubular disorder
2 reasons why K+ would be lost at the GI tract:
-Severe diahrrea
2 reasons why K+ would be lost via the skin:
-Severe burns
-Strenuous exercise induced dehydration
3 mechanisms by which K+ can be distributed abnormally in the body:
-Alkalosis in the cell
-Catecholamine surge
-Excessive insulin dose
Why does alkalosis cause a hypokalemic state in plasma?
K+ gets exchanged transcellularly for H+ to increase plasma pH
How does a catecholamine surge induced by acute body stress cause hypokalemia?
It causes cellular uptake of K+ by the Na/K atpase
Why would excessive administration of insulin result in hypokalemia?
If used for treating Diabetic Ketoacidosis it involves transcellular uptake of K+ for H+
4 consequences of Hypokalemia:
1. Slowing of cardiac APs -> cardiac arrythmia
2. Cell memb hyperpolarization
(reduced excitability/functn)
3. Muscle weakness/paralysis
4. Inactive K+depend enzymes
2 Types of HYPERkalemia:
What are 5 causes of acute hyperkalemia?
-Massive cell breakdown
-Massive trauma
-GI bleeding
What can cause massive intravascular hemolysis?
Transfusion mismatch
Why does GI bleeding cause hyperkalemia?
Cells lyse and that's followed by absorption of K-rich blood by liver.
Why does chemotherapy cause hyperkalemia?
Destroys cells - potassium spills out.
What is the major cause of chronic hyperkalemia?
Chronic renal disease with impaired excretion at the collecting ducts.
3 Major consequences of hyperkalemia:
1. Myocardial arrythmia
2. Cell memb depolarization
3. Muscle weakness and paralysis
Why does Hyperkalemia cause myocardial arrythmia?
Because it leads to ventricular arrythmia and fibrillation.
Why does hyperkalemia cause muscle WEAKNESS and PARALYSIS?
Because it increases NMJ excitability and activity and wears out the cells.