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42 Cards in this Set

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What is an Aphasia?
An acquired disturbance of language functions due to injury of the CNS
Is an Aphasia always due to a problem with Broca's area?
No - it can be ataxic speech due to problems with the cerebellum, or disarthria due to alcoholism
What do all disorders of speech involve malfunction of?
The MUSCLES of speech articulation.
Mutism is what?
The absence of speech, either due to a psychologic problem or neurologic problem.
What is the common type of organic mutism?
Akinetic mutism
What is Akinetic Mutism thought to be?
A failure of the brain to initiate the action of speech.
What areas in the brain are responsible for Akinetic Mutism?
Bilateral frontal or SMA
What is Aphonia?
The lack of ability to produce a vocal sound.
What is Aphonia typically due to?
Denervation of peripheral nerves to the vocal chords
What is Aphemia?
The lack of ability to ARTICULATE speech
What CAN a subject with Aphemia do?
Produce vocal sounds like grunts, groans, or song-like features.
What is Aphemia caused by?
Disconnection of the final output pathway for speech production due to a lesion in the white matter beneath Broca's area.
What is the difference between SPEECH and LANGUAGE?
Speech is like a motor function
Language has more limbic in it
What are the disorders of language?
Aphasias
What are the 3 dimensions of language?
-Fluency
-Comprehension
-Repetition
Which is the most useful dimension to focus on in diagnosing aphasias?
Fluency
Why is Fluency the most useful dimension to focus on in diagnosing aphasias?
Because it can localize the brain dysfunction to anterior or posterior regions.
Where do Nonfluent aphasias tend to occur?
In anterior brain regions
Where do Fluent aphasias tend to occur?
In posterior brain regions
What are the 3 dimensions used to evaluate fluency?
1. Phrase length
2. Effortfulness
3. Prosody
What is considered disfluency in terms of phrase length?
Less than 1-2 words per utterance
What is prosody?
The preservation of melodic elements in speech - is it dull and monotone, or lilting?
What is the best way to evaluate fluency of speech?
Ask the patient openended questions or ask them to describe a complex picture.
What are the core language zones according to the Wernicke-Geschwind model?
Surrounding the LATERAL FISSURE (of sylvius)
What are the 2 main regions that make up the core language zones?
Posterior: Wernicke's
Anterior: Broca's
Where exactly is Wernicke's area?
In the posterior superior temporal gyrus
What is Wernicke's area critical for?
Speech comprehension - understanding the question
Where exactly is Broca's area?
In the posterior/inferior frontal lobe
What is Broca's area critical for?
Speech production - answering the question
What is the band of white matter that connects Broca's and Wernicke's areas?
The arcuate fasciculus
What is the Arcuate Fasciculus critical for?
Speech repetition
What causes Global aphasia?
Damage to both anterior and posterior areas of the core language zones
What is preserved in transcortical aphasia?
Repetition speech
What lesions cause transcortical motor aphasia?
Damage to premotor regions or SMA
What causes Transcortical snesory aphasia?
Damage to the Angular gyrus or posterior/inferior temporal lobe
Do only areas in the periSylvian area contribute to linguistic functions?
No
What other areas of the brain contribute to linguistic functions?
-Frontal
-Parietal
-Temporal
Broca's Aphasia:
-What type of aphasia
-What can't they do
-Why
-Nonfluent aphasia
-No repetition speech because
-Can't articulate
Where is Broca's area?
Inferior frontal lobe
Wernicke's Aphasia:
-What type of aphasia
-What can't they do
-Why
-Fluent aphasia
-No Repetition speech because
-Can't comprehend/recognize
Conduction Aphasia:
-What type of aphasia
-What can't they do
-Why
-Fluent aphasia
-No repetition speech because
-Impaired auditory storage or maybe the Arcuate fasciculus
Transcortical Sensory Aphasia:
-What type of aphasia
-What can't they do
-Why
-Fluent aphasia
-Repetition is PRESERVED!!
-Language comprehension deficits at the word level