Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

43 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What is Laterality?
How a cerebral hemisphere is specialized for a group or class of cognitive operations.
What is Dominance?
The cerebral hemisphere that is specialized for language
Which cerebral hemisphere is usually dominant?
What is Crowding?
A condition caused by early left hemisphere damage where language areas shift to the right hemisphere.
Why is Crowding bad?
Because the language areas in the right hemisphere take up the space where other cognitive capacities would have developed like visual-spatial skills.
What is Pathological Left Handedness?
A condition of left-handedness that occurs because early injury to the left hemisphere causes a shift in natural handedness pattern.
What is aphasia?
A disorder of language
What side of the brain is the lateral fissure more steep in its slope?
On the right - nice and flat on the left side.
On which side of the brain is the frontal lobe wider and longer?
On which side of the brain is the occipital lobe wider and longer?
What does a large Planum temporale do?
Allows perfect pitch (hmm maybe in me and dad? :)
What is the best way to determine handedness?
Ask "What hand do you write with?"
What hand do most people right with?
Right - 90%
What are 2 more accurate and quantitative ways to measure dominance?
What is IAT?
Intracarotid Amobarbital testing
In what patients is IAT done? Why?
Only those with abnormal brain function - because it's invasive
What is the basis of how IAT works?
You numb half the brain and meausre how well the non-anaesthetized hemisphere can perform.
What is the basis of fMRI?
Changes in the ratio of oxy to deoxyhemoglobin in the brain, which correlates with brain activity.
Why is fMRI better than IAT?
Because it's noninvasive
Where is our speech area normally located?
On the left hemisphere in Broca's area
In patients with brain damage occurring later in life, what side of the brain will speech representation be if right handed?
96% will be in left broca's area
4% will be on right
In patients with brain damage occurring later in life, what side of the brain will speech representation be if left handed?
70% will have speech in left
15% will be bilateral
15% will be on right
So in what people is speech representation more affected by brain damage later in life?
Left handed people
What do we call it when dominance is bilateral or on the right side?
Atypical dominance
What does early damage do to dominance?
Increases atypical dominance
What patients with early brain damage are more prone to atypical dominance?
Left handed patients
What disease is most commonly associated with right hemisphere dominance?
What can be strongly predictive of atypical dominance?
Family history of left-handedness (compared to an isolated occurrence)
What happens to language processing as we age?
It becomes more symmetric
What is the important structure in the left hemisphere that is important for motor speech?
Broca's area
What happens if you injure Broca's area before the age of 1?
Language is spared, but their general IQ will be low
What happens if you injure Broca's area between ages 1-5?
Language is spared, but crowding may occur (visual-spatial deficits)
What happens if Broca's area is injured after the age of 5?
Language is not spared; specific language deficits are seen.
Are males more lateralized than females?
When injury occurs to anterior or posterior speech zones, what will happen?
Control of functions regulated by those selective areas will shift to the right hemisphere.
When injury occurs to core or central speech zones, what will happen?
The whole language area may shift to the right hemisphere.
What is it called when all language control is shifted to the right hemisphere?
Crossed dominance
When does lateralization of function increase and decrease?
-Increases before puberty
-Decreases after puberty
What is mutism?
Absence of speech
What is Aphonia?
Inability to produce vocal sound, usually due to a problem with the vocal chords.
What is Aphemia?
Loss of the capacity to verbalize
What is Dysarthria?
Impaired capacity to articulate speech due to impaired neuromuscular control.
What are Aphasias?
The real language disorders, due to injury of the CNS linguistic functions.