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9 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
What are the 3 causes of raised ICP with a brain tumour?
- Tumour itself
- Cerebral oedema (particularly vasogenic i.e. breakdown of BBB)
- Tumour blocks CSF flow: hydrocephalus
How is a brain tumour diagnosed?
- CT can miss some tumours
- MRI + contrast to leak through the leaky BBB (if -ve, not a tumour!)
- PET to destinguish b/w low and high grade
- Dx must be confirmed by histology
What tumour am I?
- Young Adults
- 1st symptom often a seizure
- MRI: non-enhancing mass
- Median survival 7 yrs
Low grade astrocytoma
What tumour am I?
- Commonest astrocytoma in 50-70 yr olds
- MRI: irregular ring-like contrast enhancement
- Microscopy: necrosis with palisading of cells, vascular proliferation
- Almost never metasticise outside the head
- Median survival 1 year
Glioblastoma multiforme
What tumour am I?
- 20% of glial tumours
- Imaging looks like astrocytoma
- Microscopy: fried-egg appearance
- Median survival 16 years (most eventually progress to malignancy)
Oligodendroglioma
What tumour am I?
- Arise from arachnoid cells
- Majority are asymptomatic
- If symptomatic, hemispheric (seizures, hemiparesis) or cranial neuropathies (skull base)
- Microscopy: whorls or cells
- Slow growing
- MRI: attached to dura, contrast enhancement
Meningioma
What tumour am I?
- Arise from Schwann cells
- Common site: angle b/w cerebellum and pons (tinnitus, hearing difficulties, abnormal facial sensation
- MRI: well defined mass
- Microscopy: spindle shaped cells with lining up of nuclei
Schwannoma
What are common sources of metastatic brain tumours?
What do they look like?
Lung, breast, melanoma
Cannon-ball appearance
What cranial structures are sensitive to pain?
- Skin, subcutaneous tissue, muscles, extracranial arteries, periosteum
- Eye, ear, nasal cavities and sinuses
- Venous sinuses & large tributaries
- Parts of the dura at the base of the brian
- Arteries within the dura and pia-arachnoid
- Middle meningeal and superficial temporal arteries
- II, III, V, IX, X and first 3 cervical nerves