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44 Cards in this Set

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over-indigestion of fat-soluble vitamines
1) Vit. A-induced hydrocephalus
2) Vit. D-induced hypercalcemia
special cases which need supplemental vitamins?
1) pregnancy, lactation
2) improper absorption
3) Ab therapy
4) hemodialysis
5) HAL
6) poor diet
water-soluble vitamins
1) Thiamine (B1)
2) Riboflavin (B2)
3) Nicotinic acid (Niacin)
4) Pyridoxin (B6)
5) Pantothenic acid
6) Biotin
7) Folic acid
8) Cyanocobalamin (B12)
9) Ascorbic acid (Vit. C)
fat-soluble vit.
1) A
2) D
3) E
4) K
thiamine (B1) is converted to active coenzyme
thiamine pyrophosphate
thiamine pyrophosphate is needed for?
1) decarboxylation rxs (pyruvate)
2) pentose in hexose-monophosphate shunt
low thiamine
Beriberi
Beriberi causes?
1) muscle weakness
2) < appetite
3) peripheral edema
4) < BP
5) < temp.
severe thiamine deficiency?
Korsakoff's syndrome
alcoholics
severe thiamine deficiency is asso. with?
1) peripheral poluneuritis
2) loss of feeling in legs
3) memory impairment
4) encephalopathy
riboflavin (B2) is converted to coenzymes
1) falvin mononucleotide
2) flavin dinucleotide
riboflabin is important in
H ion transport oxidative enzyme processes
first symptoms of riboflavin deficiency
1) pharyngitis
2) angular stomatitis
other s/s of riboflavin deficiency
1) glossitis
2) denuded lips
3) dermatitis of face, trunk, extremities
4) anemia
5) peripheral neuropathy
6) cataracts
nicotinic acid (niacin) is converted to?
1) nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD)
2) NAD phosphate (NADP) coenzymes
nicotinic acid is required for?
oxidation/reduction rxn in tissue respiration
nicotinic acid deficiency?
Pellegra
s/s of Pellegra?
1) dermatitis
2) diarrhea
3) salivation
4) N/V
5) swollen tongue
6) dementia
7) motor/sensory nerve disturbance
niacin toxicity
1) flushing
2) pruritis
3) hepatotoxicity
4) hyperuricemia
5) peptic ulcers
pyridoxine (B6) is converted to?
pyridoxal phosphate by pyridoxal kinase
pyridoxine acts as coenzymes for conversion of?
1) tryptophan to serotonin
2) methionine to cysteine
pyridoxine deficiency is seen frequently in?
alcoholics
s/s of pyridoxine deficiency
1) dermatitis
2) CNS dysfunction
3) Sz
4) peripheral neuritis
pantohtenic acid is converted into?
coenzyme A
pantothenic acid is needed for enzymatically driven
acetylation reactions
Biotin is coenzyme for?
1) carboxylation rxs
2) fatty acid synthesis
s/s of biotin deficiency
1) glossitis
2) anorexia
3) dermatits
4) mental depression
biotin deficiency is seen more frequently in?
infants and pts with HAL
folic acid act as a?
carbon transfer agent
active form of folic acid
tetrahydrofolate (B12 is required)
folic acid deficiency
1) GI disease
2) alcoholics
most common symp. of folic acid deficiency
megaloblastic anemia
cyanocobalamine (B12)is needed for?
DNA synthesis
first sign of B12 deficiency?
megaloblastic anemia
deficiency of ascorbic acid (vit. C) causes?
scurvy
S/s = gingivitis, petechia, decreased wound healing
fucntion of vit. A
1) retina
2) mucosal
3) epithelial cells
4) bone development
5) reproduction
6) embryonic growth
7) stabilize membranes
severe vit. A deficiency causes?
night blindness
severe s/s of hypervitaminosis (vit. A)
1) hepatosplenomegaly with cirrhosis
2) > ICP with neuro change
3) hypercalcemia
function of vit. D
1) maintenance of Ca and phos
2) sterols = hormones
vit. D deficiency in children
rickets (bone deformity)
vit.D deficiency in adults
osteomalacia
vit. D hypervitaminosis
1) hypercalcemia
2) muscleweakness
3) fatigue
4) headache
Vit. E
1) in plants
2) potent antioxidants
vit. K is needed in synthesis of
several blood clotting factors