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49 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
what kind of tissue is bone tissue?
connective tissue
6 functions of the bone
1.support 2.movement 3.protection 4.mineral storage 5.lipid storage 6.white and red blood cell production
hemopoiesis
process of making red blood cells
bone matrix is made up of:
25% collagen fibers
25% water
50% mineral salts
2% cells
main mineral in bone matrix is:
hydroxyapetite
hydroxiapatite
combination of Ca hydroxide and Ca phosphate
diaphysis
shaft of the bone
epiphysis
ends of the bone
marrow cavity
where lipids are stored and blood cells and formed
articular cartilages
covers ends of the bone to protect it
periosteum
outer surface of bone, connects the tendons to the bone
compact bone
outer bone and epiphysis
spongy bone
at joints, may penetrate across marrow caity of campact bone
osteon
basic functional unit
haversian canal
central canal containing blood vessels
Osteoblasts
bone building cells
osteocytes
mature bone cells
lamellae
layers of bone cells
lacunae
little lakes; closet the cells live in
canaliculi
canals; tunnels that connect them together
trabeculae
"little beams"; beams that provide support in all directions
intramembranous ossification
when spongy bones develops within or on loose connective tissue
center of ossification
when cells turn into osteoblasts and start laying down matrix
endochondral ossification
bone formed by replacing cartilage with bone
primary ossification centers
where osteoblasts lay down bone tissue over remnants of calcified cartilage
osteocytes
mature bone cell
osteoprogenitor cells
stem cells of osteocytes
osteoblasts
actually produces new bone tissue
osteogenesis
making bone
inhibitors
keep minerals from precipitating out
osteoclasts
related to phagocytes; break down bone; made from monocytes (not osteoprogenitor cells)
osteolysis
breaking down bone
piezoelectric effect
when you compress a crystal and get a negative potential, the other side is positive which creates this current which stimulates osteoblasts
rickets
disease that exists when you have too much calcium; bow legged
scurvy
not enough vitamin C; teeth fall out, bruise easily
insulin like growth factors
promotes cell growth at the epiphyseal line
growth hormone (somatotropin)
stimulate body to use lipids instead of carbs
thyroxine
increases growth rate and stimulates mental processes
epiphyseal line
left from growth plate
osteopenia
where ossfication is decreasing
osteoporosis
decaying of bones
parathyroid gland releases ___ when ______.
PTH (parathormone); calcium drops too low
3 ways to increases Ca:
1. stimulates osteoclast activity
2. increases conversion of Vitamin to calcitrol
3. decreases rate of Ca excretion by kidney
3 ways to decreases Ca:
1. decrease osteoclasts
2. increases osteoblastic activity
3. increase rate of Ca ion excretion in kidneys
hypocalcemia
nervous system excitable de to increases membrane permeability
tetany
muscles freese; cause convulsions
hypercalcemia
nervous system depressed if Ca rises higher than normal (causes erratic heart beat, constipation)
mild hyperparathyroidism
forms kidney stones
serious hyperparathyroidism
too much PTH, minerals deposit in lungs, kidneys, and brain.