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26 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
a. synaptic potentials
____________ ___________ are the incoming signals to the neuron.

a. synaptic potentials
b. action potentials
b. action potentials
When the neuron is depolarized to threshold, it generates an ________ _________. The action potential is the outgoing signal of the neuron.

a. synaptic potentials
b. action potentials
a. amplitude and duration
Recall that action potentials are all-or-none events. For a given cell, the action potential has the same __________ and ___________ as it travels along the axon.

a. amplitude and duration
b. decay and fizzle out
a. synaptic potentials, action potentials
__________ __________ are considerably smaller than ________ _________.

a. synaptic potentials, action potentials
b. action potentials, synaptic potentials
a. depolarize
Excitatory postsynaptic potentials _________ neurons.

a. depolarize
b. hyperpolarize
b. hyperpolarize
Inhibitory postsynaptic potentials ___________ neurons.

a. depolarize
b. hyperpolarize
b. neurotransmitter
The amplitude of a synaptic potential varies and is related to the number of synaptic vesicles releasing ______________.

a. calcium
b. neurotransmitter
c. sodium
a. calcium
The number of vesicles releasing neurotransmitter in turn is related to the amount of ______ that enters the presynaptic terminal.

a. calcium
b. neurotransmitter
c. sodium
a. EPSP
In some neurons, rapid firing of action potentials allows more calcium to enter the terminal. This causes enhanced ___________ _____________, or potentiation, for a period of time.

a. EPSP
b. IPSP
c. postsynaptic potentials
d. presynaptic inhibition
d. presynaptic inhibition
Signaling at an axoaxonic synapse can decrease the entry of calcium into the presynaptic terminal. This event, called ________ _________, decreases the amplitude of a subsequent postsynaptic potential.

a. EPSP
b. IPSP
c. postsynaptic potentials
d. presynaptic inhibition
a. calcium
When the amount of ________ entering the presynaptic terminal is altered, the synaptic potential may be enhanced, or weakened. Because they vary in amplitude, synaptic potentials are called graded potentials.

a. calcium
b. neurotransmitter
c. sodium
b. decay
Synaptic potentials are largest at the synapse where they originate. Synaptic potentials _______ as they travel away from the synapse.

a. potentiate
b. decay
c. remain as is
a. short distances
Unlike the action potential, the synaptic potential can only travel for _________ ________ because it decays as it moves along the neuronal membrane. This effect is true for both excitatory postsynaptic potentials and inhibitory postsynaptic potentials.

a. short distances
b. long distances
a. EPSP
A single action potential in a presynaptic cell leads to an _____________ ___________ __________, which is too small to depolarize a neuron to threshold.

a. EPSP
b. IPSP
c. postsynaptic potentials
d. presynaptic inhibition
a. depolarization
The neuron can summate, or add, excitatory postsynaptic potentials to produce a greater ____________.

a. depolarization
b. hyperpolarization
c. EPSP
d. IPSP
c. temporal summation
This is an example of _________ _________. Several action potentials are delivered along the same axon but staggered in time.

a. depolarize
b. hyperpolarize
c. temporal summation
d. spatial summation
d. spatial summation
Excitatory postsynaptic potentials from synapses at different sites also summate. This process is an example of ________ _________.

a. depolarize
b. hyperpolarize
c. temporal summation
d. spatial summation
c. EPSP
Many __________ __________ ____________ are required to depolarize a neuron to threshold.

a. depolarization
b. hyperpolarization
c. EPSP
d. IPSP
c. summate
Like excitatory postsynaptic potentials, inhibitory postsynaptic potentials also _________.

a. depolarization
b. hyperpolarization
c. summate
b. action potentials
The overall effect of inhibitory activity is to keep the membrane potential below threshold, thus preventing the postsynaptic cell from generating an ______ _______.

a. synaptic potentials
b. action potentials
c. summate
Inhibitory postsynaptic potentials and excitatory postsynaptic potentials also _______ with each other.

a. depolarization
b. hyperpolarization
c. summate
d. reduce
d. reduce
When inhibitory potentials are added to excitatory potentials, they ______ the magnitude of the excitatory postsynaptic potentials.

a. depolarization
b. hyperpolarization
c. summate
d. reduce
a. threshold
Excitatory activity must travel from the synapse across the cell body to depolarize a neuron to ___________.

a. threshold
b. depolarize
c. hyperpolarize
a. trigger zone
The closer a synapse is to the _________ ________ , the greater the effectiveness of that synapse. In the brain, inhibitory synapses are often located on the cell body, where they can have the most powerful effect.

a. trigger zone
b. depolarization
c. hyperpolarization
d. EPSP
e. IPSP
b. action potentials
Neurons are like democracies. Like thousands of voters, the synapses signal their aye or nay votes, and the neuron counts them all. If the aye votes prevail, the neuron generates an ________ ________. If the nay votes prevail, the neuron remains silent.

a. synaptic potentials
b. action potentials
a. cellular integration
The process by which a neuron tallies the votes is called ________ ____________.

a. cellular integration
b. temporal summation
c. spatial summation