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80 Cards in this Set

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What 5 structures are superficial in the cervical region?
1. External jugular vein
2. Cutaneous nerves
3. Platysma muscle
4. Sternocleidomastoidmuscle
5. Trapezius muscle
What 4 cutaneous cervical nerves can be seen superficially? What are their cervical roots?
-Transverse cervical (C2/C3)
-Great auricular (C2/C3)
-Supraclavicular nerves (C3/C4)
-Lesser Occipital nerve (C2/C3)
What innervates the platysma?
CN VII - facial
What is the 'laryngeal prominence'? What cervical level?
Adams apple - C4/C5
What cervical level is the hyoid bone?
About c3
What is the cricoid cartilage?
The first complete ring of the trachea; just below the thyroid cartilage
What forms the external jugular vein?
-Posterior auricular vein
-Retromandibular vein
-Come together to form EJV
What is a useful feature of the EJV?
-Its prominence can suggest intrathoracic pressure, tumors, or congestive heart failure.
What type of nerves are the cutaneous cervical nerves?
Sensory
In what region does the transverse cervical nerve receive sensory info?
Anterior triangle; curves around from the mid-posterior StrnCMst border then crosses over it. Deep to the platysma
Where does the Great Auricular Nerve recieve sensory info from?
-Skin over parotid gland
-Backside of the ear
-Skin from mandibular angle to mastoid process
Where does the lesser occipital nerve provide innervation?
-Neck skin
-Scalp behind the ear
Where do the supraclavicular nerves innervate?
Small branches spread across the neck skin and shoulder (it emerges as one trunk from SCM)
What is the platysma also called?
The shaving muscle
What is the function of the platysma?
Assists in mastication; but inervated by CN VII (not V3!)
How is the platysma classified (w/ ref to grouping)?
As a muscle of facial expression.
What innervates the SCM (sternocleidomastoid)?
The spinal accessory n. CN XI
What is the origin/insertion of SCM?
Origin: mastoid process of temporal bone
Insertions: sternal manubrium + clavicle
How does the SCM act when contr.
-Alone
-Both sides
Alone: turns head to opposite side
Together: flexion
What does CN XI also innervate?
Trapezius
What is the proper name for the strap muscles of the neck?
Infrahyoid muscles
What are the strap muscles in general; what is their function?
Ribbon like muscles that assist in Speech, Swallowing, and Stability of Hyoid bone and Thyroid cartilage.
What are all of the strap muscles innervated by?
Ansa cervicalis (C1-C3)
List the 4 strap muscles:
-Omohyoid
-Sternohyoid
-Sternothyroid
-Thyrohyoid
Omohyoid:
-origin
-insertion
Origin = shoulder
Insertion = hyoid bone
What vascular structure is just beneath the omohyoid?
Common carotid
What strap muscle is most medial?
Sternohyoid
What strap muscle lies beneath sternohyoid?
Sternothyroid
What lies just above sternothyroid?
Thryohyoid
Sternohyoid:
-origin
-insertion
origin = sternum
insertion = hyoid bone
Sternothyroid:
-origin
-insertion
origin = manubrium (post border)
insertion = thyroid cartilage
Thyrohyoid:
-origin
-insertion
origin = thyroid cartilage
insertion = hyoid bone
What exactly innervates the Thyrohyoid muscle?
C1 thru Hypoglossal nerve
What is the main function of the thyrohyoid muscle?
To close the laryngeal orifice during swallowing - prevents food from entering the larynx.
what are the roots of the cervical plexus?
C1-C5
What do the cervical nerves do?
Provide sensry and motor innervation to the NECK.
What are the sensory nerves of the cervical plexus?
-Lesser occipital
-Greater auricular
-Transverse cervical
-Supraclavicular
What are the motor nerves of the cervical plexus?
-Ansa cervicalis
-Phrenic
-Spinal accessory
What are the roots of ansa cervicalis?
C1-C3
What does ansa run with?
hypoglossal nerve; lies within carotid sheath.
what does the ansa cervicalis innervate?
strap muscles - motor
What are the nerve roots of the phrenic nerve, and what muscle does it lay right next to?
C3,4,5 keep diaphragm alive..
-lays next to anterior scalene muscle.
what cervical nerve roots does the accesory nerve CN XI pick up?
C2,3,4
What is the Posterior Triangle divided into?
1. Occipital triangle
2. Supraclavicular triangle
What are the borders of the posterior triangle overall?
Ant: Sternocleidomastoid
Post: Trapezius
Inferior: mid 1/3 clavicle
What structures lie within the posterior triangle?
1. External jugular v.
2. Occipital artery (apex)
3. Spinal accessory n.
4. Portion of Subclavian artery
Structure separating Ant/Post triangles:
Sternocleidomastoid
Where in posterior triangle is:
-Safe area
-No man's land
Safe = above posterior omohyoid belly; few important structures
Danger = below post omohyoid belly - watch out!
What is in No man's land of the posterior triangle?
-Brachial plexus
-Cervical plexus
-Subclavian artery/vein
-Thyrocervical trunk
Anterior triangle borders:
-Midline of neck
-Inferior mandible border
-Anterior SCM border
2 triangles within Anterior tri:
-Carotid
-Muscular
Carotid triangle borders:
-Omohyoid superior belly
-Digastric posterior belly
-SCM anterior border
Important structures in Carotid triangle:
-Carotid sheath (includes sinus)
-Ansa cervicalis
-Hypoglossal nerve
What is a bruit?
Turbulent sound resulting from bloodflow through artery at faster rate than normal.
What will a Bruit heard in the carotid triangle indicate?
Arteriosclerosis
Muscular triangle borders:
-Omohyoid Superior belly
-Midline of neck
-Anterior SCM border
Important structures in the Muscular Triangle:
Strap muscles + Thyroid gland and cartilage
What will a Bruit heard in the Muscular triangle indicate?
Hyperthyroidism
3 Main branches of the Aortic Arch:
RIGHT: Brachiocephalic trunk

LEFT: Subclavian a. + Common Carotid a.
What nerve is blocked in a lip laceration? Why?
Infraorbital - to prevent swelling and make sutures easier
Temporal Arteritis
Pathological thicken/hardening of Superfic. Temporal artery due to autoimmune inflammation of the vessel lining
Symptoms associated with Temporal arteritis:
-Pain in palpating temporal area
-Unilateral vsion loss
Common in 60-70 yr olds mostly
3 Sections of Subclavian A:
1. Medial to Anterior Scalene
2. Behind Anterior scalene
3. Lateral to Ant. scalene
Branches of Section 1:
-Vertebral
-Thyrocervical trunk
Vertebral artery supplies:
Circle of Willis
Subclavian Steal Syndrome:
-Occlusion of Subclavian between Common Carotid/Vertebral branchs
-Diminished bloodflow to arm
What is a symptom of subclavian steal syndrome?
When pt lifts arm, faints
Reason for fainting when lifting arm in Subcl. Steal Syndrome:
Blood flows up ICA -> Circle of Willis -> down Vertebral
to supply subclavian on other side of occlusion.
-Insufficient blood to brain
Vessel commonly used for bypass:
Internal thoracic
EJV is formed by:
-Retromandibular
-Posterior auricular
Swollen Nodes in Ant triangle:

Swollen Nodes in Post & Ant triangles:
Ant = Bacterial (Strep)

Both = Viral (mono)
What 4 arteries anastomose around the scapula?
-Transverse cervical
-Suprascapular
-Subscapular
-Circumflex Scapular
What are the deep muscles in the cervical region?
-Longus Capitus
-Longus colli
Where are the o/i of longus capitis?
O = Bodies and Transverse processes of cervical vertebrae
I = occipital bone of skull
What innervates longus capitis and colli?
Cervical nerves
What is the action of longus capitis and colli together?
Flexion of neck
Action of Scalenes:
Accessory muscles of breathing
O and I of Scalenes:
O = cervical vertebrae transverse processes

I = 1st and 2nd ribs
4 Structures Surround Anterior Scalene Muscle:
Subclavian vein = anterior
Subclavian artery = posterior
Brachial plexus = posterior
Phrenic nerve = along belly
Stellate ganglion:
Coalescence of Inferior cervical ganglion with 1st Thoracic ganglion - occasional.