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56 Cards in this Set

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Wha is the cause of clinical presentation?
Mass effect --> seaizure, dementia, focal lesions, etc
What is the tendancy of primary brain tumors to metastasize?
They don't
What is rule of thimb about the location of adult brain tumors vs kiddie brain tumors?
Adult: supratentorial
Kiddie: infratentorial
What is the most common brain tumor in adults?
Metastatic brain tumors i.e. not primary brain tumors
What does a metastatic brain tumor look like on imaging?
Well circumscribed and found at the gray-white junction
Name the 5 most common primary adult brain tumors, in order of incidence
1. Gliobastoma multiforme
2. Meningioma
3. Schwannoma
4. Oligoderdroglioma
5. Pitiutary adenoma
Gliobastoma multiforme: what is another name?
Grade IV astrocytoma
Gliobastoma multiforme: what is the prognosis?
Grave, < 1 year life expectancy
Gliobastoma multiforme: where is it found?
In the cerebral hemispheres, but it can cross the corpus callosum (butterfly glioma)
Gliobastoma multiforme: what stain is used?
GFAP to detect astrocyte involvement
Gliobastoma multiforme: histology?
Areas of necrosis surrounded by pseudopalisading tumor cells (Image 48)
Meningioma: where does it occur?
convexities of the parasagittal region
Meningioma: from what does it arise
arachoid cells that are external to the brain
Meningioma: how is it treated
surgical resection
Meningioma: histology (2)
1. Spindle cells concetrically arranged in a whorled pattern
2. Psammoma bodies
What is a psammoma body?
laminated sphere shaped calcifications
Schwannoma: what is the cell of origin
Schwann cells
Schwannoma: where is it often found and what is it called when it is there
Growing on CN VIII at the cerebellopontine angle - this is called an acoustic schwannoma
Schwannoma: what is the treatment
surgical resection
Schwannoma: what is the tumor marker
S-100 is usually positive
Schwannoma: associated with what genetic disease
bilateral schwannomas are associated with NF2
Oligodenroglioma: how common
relatively rare
Oligodenroglioma: how fast does it grow
grows slowly
Oligodenroglioma: where is it located usually
in the frontal lobes
Oligodenroglioma: histology
Fried-eggs = chicken wire capillary pattern with cytoplasmic clearing (image 49)
What 3 things have the "fried egg histology"?
1. HPV - koilocytes
2. Seminoma
3. Oligodenroglioma (and oligodendrocytes)
Pituitary adenoma: what is the most common version
prolactinoma
Pituitary adenoma: what is the classic presentation
bitemporal heminopsia
Pituitary adenoma: what are some sequealae
hyper or hypo gonadism
What are the 5 most common primary kiddie brain tumors?
1. Low grade pilocytic astrocytoma
2. Medulloblastoma
3. Ependymoma
4. Hemagioblastoma
5. Craniopharyngioma
Low grade pilocytic astrocytoma: gross description
Well circumscribed, solid and cystic
Low grade pilocytic astrocytoma: where is it most often found in kids, but where may it also be found
Most often found in the posterior fossa in kids but it may also be supratentorial
Low grade pilocytic astrocytoma: What is the tumor marker
GFAP postive
Low grade pilocytic astrocytoma: What is the prognosis?
This tumor is benign and has a good prognosis
Low grade pilocytic astrocytoma: histology
Rosenthal fibers - eosinophilic corkscrew fibers
Medulloblastoma: benign or malignant?
Malignant
Medulloblastoma: where is it found
Cerebellum
Medulloblastoma: belongs to what class of tumors
PNET = primitive neuroendocrine tumors
Medulloblastoma: what is an anatomical consequence
Compression of the 4th ventricle which leads to hydrocephalus
Medulloblastoma: what is the treatment
it is radiosensitive
Medulloblastoma: gross findings
Solid
Medulloblastoma: histology (2)
1. Small blue cells
2. Homer-wright rosettes
Epyndymoma: where is it most commonly found
In the 4th ventricle
Epyndymoma: what is an anatomical consequence
hydrocephalus
Epyndymoma: what is the prognosis
poor
Epyndymoma: histology?
Perivascular pseudorosettes with rod shaped blepharoplasts found near the nucleus
Hemangioblastoma: where is it most often found
cerebellar
Hemangioblastoma: associated with what genetic syndrome and when specifically?
von hippel lindou (VHL) when found with retinal hemangiomas
Hemangioblastoma: what can this tumor secrete and what is the consequence?
EPO secretion can cause secondary polycythemia
Hemangioblastoma: histology (2)
1. Foamy cells
2. High vascularity
Craniopharingioma: malignant or benign
Benign
Craniopharingioma: what is it often confused with and why
Pituitary adenoma - because it also causes bitemporal heminopsia
Craniopharingioma: from what is it derived
Rathke's pouch remnants
Craniopharingioma: gross findings
Tooth like enamel calcification is common
Craniopharingioma: interesting epidemiology
Most common supratentorial tumor in kids
What 2 primary kiddie tumors can present supratentorially?
1. Craniopharyngeoma (most common)
2. Low grade pilocytic astrocytoma