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14 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
What photoreceptors are responsible for intake of light and regulation of biological clock?
Melanopsin receptors transmit sernsory information via retinohypothalamic tract to the SCN (suprachiasmic nucleus)
What is the MASTER BIOLOGICAL CLOCK?
SCN is the main clock. It coordinates the circadian clocks all over the body.

SCN drives the circadian drive for wakefulness!
What are two main hormones that SCN controls.
Melatonin and cortisol. Both oscillate.

Melatonin levels are HIGH at NIGHT

Cortisol levels are OPPOSITE. STRESS INCREASES DURING DAY.
What are the two factors determining performance and alertness?
Circadian drive for wakefulness (via SCN) and the homeostatic need for sleep (starts when you wake up and gets extreme by 16hrs)
When does sleep-walking occur?
Delta sleep: NREM 3&4...earlier hours of the evening. very HIGH amplitude.

REM cycles become more frequent later in the night.
How long is one sleep cycle?
~90-120 minutes. This is considered normal architecture
What kinds of deficits do we see in sleep loss?
Cognitive (LAPSES ARE HALLMARK!), physiological (EYES ROLL OUT AND UP...SLOW BLINKING), behavorial (PFC hypometabolism, inferior parietal, occipital, thalamus)

Other physiologic changes...elevated cortisol levels (HPA activation). elevated insulin resistance. leukocytosis/monocytosis

INCREASED OBESITY AND MORTALITY. Working memory declines.
True/false?

Environmental factors cause sleepiness?
FALSE, all they do is UNMASK an underlying situation.
Must sleep debt paid off?
YES! not necessarily the same number of hours, but a certain type of sleep.

With effort, people can improve their task performance, but OPTIMACY AND CONSISTENCY ARE LOST IN SLEEP DEPRIVATION.
What is sleep inertia?
A feeling of groggyness, hung over feeling. Can last for 15-30 minutes upon waking.
What are two KEY components involved in good night's sleep.
1) Number of hours

2) Normal sleep architecture (normal REM cycles)
Which is worse? ACUTE sleep deprivation or CHRONIC sleep deprivation?
CHRONIC AND ACUTE = Just as bad!

Levels of increased depression, problems at work
Do people know how sleepy they really are? How good they are at cognitive tasks?
Vulnerable people to sleep loss DO NOT PERCEIVE DIFFERENCES IN THEIR ABILITY TO PERFORM TASKS
What are big risks for driving and getting in accidents?
NIGHTSHIFT (8 AM accidents), young male drivers, commercial truck drivers, patients with sleeping disorders.