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49 Cards in this Set

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Social Studies Chapter 1

The First Americans

Jon Sams, 5th Grade, Mrs. Vassiliev
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In what ways did the Ice Ages change the Earth's environment?
At times it was so cold that glaciers formed over much of the land. So much water was locked up in the glaciers that the oceans became shallower.
How did the environment affect the ways early people moved from place to place?
They followed huge Ice Age animals, like the mammoth, that they hunted for food.
adobe
A mixture of sandy clay and straw that is dried into bricks.
band
A small group of people who work together to do activities.
agriculture
farming
Why did Ice Age hunters move from place to place?
They followed huge Ice Aged animals that they hunted for food.
What is the name of the land bridge that once linked Asia and the Americas?
Beringia
How did agriculture change the ways of life of early peoples?
For some Native American groups, growing their own food meant that they no longer had to move from camp to camp. They could settle and stay in one place, build stronger homes, and form villages.
What was the most important food crop grown by the first Americans? Why?
Corn or maize. It gave early peoples more food than any other crop. For this reason, they thought maize was a gift from their gods.
Why was the Olmec culture so important to early history of the Americas?
So many later groups of people learned so much from the Olmec culture that it has become known as the "mother civilzation" of the Americas. (It influenced other cultures.)
What was a kiva? What was it used for?
A kiva is a special underground room. It was used for religious services.
Why did oceans become shallow during the Ice Age?
The water became locked up in glaciers.
What materials did the Anasazi use to build pueblos?
Adobe, a mixture of sandy clay and straw that is dried into bricks.
What are three of the earliest civilizations found in the Americas?
The Olmecs, Mound Builders, and the Anasazi.
Why did the Mound Builders construct earthworks?
Many smaller mounds (earthworks) were built to bury the dead.
What different ways of life did early peoples of the Americas develop?
Various cultures developed their own language, religion, number system, writing system and calendar.
Why were Clovis points so important to early hunters?
Clovis points were razor sharp, making them the best weapons early hunters had ever had.
What changes did early peoples make when the giant Ice Age animals became extinct?
People began to fish and to hunt more of the smaller animals. They also began to store more plants for food. Because they didn't follow herds of large animals, food gatherers stayed in places a little longer than hunters.
Why are orgin stories important to Indian peoples?
These stories tell of the peoples' beliefs about the world and their place in it.
nomad
A wanderer who has no settled home.
What was the greatest mound-building civilization?
The Mississippians. They lived in hundreds of towns and several large cities in the Mississippi River valley.
glacier
Huge sheets of ice.
theory
Possible explanation.
culture
A way of life.
archaeologists
Scientists who study the cultures of people.
artifacts
Objects of early peoples had made.
evidence
Proof.
origin stories
Stories that tell of a peoples' beliefs about the world and their place in it.
technology
The use of scientific knowledge or tools to make or do something.
extinct
To die out.
maize
Corn.
religion
Beliefs about God or gods.
tribe
A group made up of many bands of people with a shared culture and land.
surplus
More than is needed.
specialize
Work on one job.
time line
A diagram that shows the events that took place during a certain period of time.
decade
A period of ten years.
century
A period of one hundred years.
millennium
A period of one thousand years.
civilization
A culture that has well-developed forms of government, religion, and learning.
temples
Places of worship.
pyramid
A building with three or more sides shaped like triangles. The sides slant upward toward a point at the top.
cultural diffusion
When culture is spread to other places. (Trade gave people a chance to meet and exchange ideas.)
earthworks
Large mounds or hills of earth that people built.
pueblos
The Spanish word for "town" or "village". The Anasazi lived in pueblos that were multi-storied and made of adobe.
mesas
High, flat-topped hills. (Most pueblos were built on top of mesas.)
drought
A long dry spell.
migration
Movement.