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87 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Abdominoperineal resection (APR)
A surgical cancer treatment involving resection of the ower sigmoid colon, rectum, anus, and surrounding skin, and formation of a sigmoid colostomy; performed as a synchronous or sequential transabdominal and perineal procedure.
Achilles reflex, Achilles tendon reflex
A contraction of the calf muscles when the tendo calcaneus is sharply struck. SYN ankel jerk, ankle reflex, tendo Achilles reflex, triceps surae reflex.
Swelling or morbid enlargement of the lymph nodes.
Antidiuretic hormone. SYN vasopressin
In the pleural and peritoneal cavity, inflammatory bands that connect opposing serous surfaces.
SYN accessory structures. Adnexa u'teri, SYN uterine appendages.
A mineralocorticoid hormone produced by the zona glomerulosa of the adrenal cortex; it's major action is to facilitate K+ exchange for Na+ in the distal renal tubule, causing Na reabsorbtion and K and H loss; the principal mineralocorticoid. Exists in equilibrium with the aldehyde form. SYN aldocortin.
Antecubital fossa
In front of the elbow.
Appendectomy, remote
Surgical removal of the vermiform appendix. SYN appendicectomy.
Attention deficit disorder ADD
A disorder of attention, organization and impulse control appearing in childhood and sometimes persisting to adulthood. Hyperactivity may be a feature, but is not necessary for the diagnosis.
1. occuring naturally and normally in a certain type of tissue or in a specific structure. 2. in transplantation, referring to same individual.
Bartter syndrome
A disorder due to a defect in active Cl- reabsorbtion in the loop of Henle; characterized by primary juxtaglomerular cell hyperplasia with secondary hyperaldosteronism, hypokalemic alkalosis, hypercalciuria, elevated renin or angiotensin levels, normal or low BP, and growth retardation; edema is absent. Autosomal recessive inheritance.
Deposition of lime or other insoluble calcium salts. A process in which tissue or noncellular material I the body becomes hardened as the result of precipitates or larger deposits of insoluble salts of calcium (and also magnesium) especially calcium carbonate and phosphate (hydoxyapetite) normally occuring only in the formation of bone and teeth. SYN calcareous infiltration.
A broad-spectrum anitbiotic derived from cephalosporin C.
Surgical removal of the gallbladder.
1. Painful erection of the penis in gonorrhea or Peyronie disease, with curvature resulting from lack of distensibility of the corpus cavernosum urethrae. SYN gryposis penis. 2. Ventral curvature of the penis, most apparent on erection, as seen in hypospadias.
Cipro (ciprofloxacin)
Antibiotic, Ophthalmic; Quinolone
Treatment of documented or suspected infections of the lower respiratory tract, sinuses, skin and skin structure, bone/joints, and urinary tract(including prostatitis) due to susceptible bacterial strains;
1. relating to the colon. 2. spasmodic pain in the abdomen.
Cochrane collaboration. A worldwide network of clinical epidemiologists who review and publish results of randomized controlled trials. The aim is to provide improved data for use in evidence-based medicine and for setting clinical practice guidelines.
Establishment of an artificial connection between the lumen of the colon and the skin.
A shortening or increase in tension; denoting the normal function of muscle. A shrinkage or reduction in size. Heartbeat, as in premature contraction.
Costovertebral angle
The acute angle formed between either 12th rib and the vertebral column.
Costovertebral: Relating to the ribs and the bodies of the thoracic vertebrae with which they articulate. SYN costocentral, vertebrocostal.
A crack or small fissure, especially in a solid substance.
CT scan
Computed tomography scan.
Cerebrovascular accident.
Radiographic demonstration of the bladder filled with contrast material. Voiding cystogram, SYN voiding cystourethrogram VCUG.
Cystoscope, cystoscopically
A lighted tubular endoscope for examining the interior of the bladder.
Demerol (meperidine)
Analgesic, narcotic
Management of moderate to severe pain; adjunct to anesthesia and preoperative sedation.
Diabetes insipidus
Chronic excretion of very large amounts of pale urine of low specific gravity, causing dehydration and extreme thirst; ordinarily results from inadequate output of pituitary ADH.
Several types: central, neurohypophyseal, and nephrogenic.
Diabetes, insulin-dependent
Insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM)
obsolete term, Severe diabetes mellitus, often brittle, usually of abrupt onset during the first 2 decades of life but can develop at any age; characterized by polydipsia, polyuria, increased apetite, weight loss, low plasma insulin levels, and susceptibility to ketoacidosis; immune-mediated destruction of pancreatic B cells; insulin therapy and dietary regulation are necessary.
Physiologic or artificial enlargement of a hollow structure or opening. The act of stretching or enlarging an opening or the lumen of a hollow structure. SYN dilatation.
Urethral dilation, increasing the caliber of the urethra by passage of a dilator.
Discrete (not discreet)
Separate, distinct, not joined to or incorporated with another; denoting especially certain lesions of the skin.
Excision of a diverticulum ( a pouch or sac opening from a tubular or saccular organ, such as the gut or bladder).
Dorsal hood
Extensor digital expansion
A traingular tendinous aponeurosis including the tendon of the extensor digitorum centrally, interosseus tendons on each side, and a lumbrical tendon laterally. It covers the dorsal aspect of the metacarpophalangeal joint and the proximal phalanx. SYN extensor expansion.
ex-lax (senna)
Laxative. Short-term treatment of constipation; evacuate the colon for bowel or rectal examinations.
The area of the abdomen on each side of the umbilical region between transpyloric plane and intertubercular or interspinous plane. SYN latus, lateral abdominal region, lateral region of abdominal region, regio abdominis lateralis, regio lateralis abdominis.
Gas or air in the gastrointestinal tract which may be expelled through the anus. (flatus vaginalis)
Foley catheter
Urethral catheter with a retaining balloon.
Official alternate term for prepuce of penis (a free fold of skin that covers, SYN preputium)
Gallop (of heart)
A triple cadence to the heart sounds; due to an abnormal third or fourth heart sound being heard in addition to the first and second sounds, and usually indicative of serious disease. SYN bruit decrease galop, cantering rhythm, gallop rhythm, Traube bruit.
Geographic tongue
Idiopathic, asymptomatic erythematous circinate macules, often bounded peripherally by a white band, as a result of atrophy of the filiform papillae; with time the lesions resolve, coalesce, and change in distribution; frequently associated with fissured tongues. SYN benign migratory glossitis, glossitis areata exfoliativa, pityriasis linguae.
Glans penis
The conical expansion of the corpus spongiosum which forms the head of the penis. SYN balanus.
Term applied to nodular inflammatory lesions, usually small or granular, firm, persistent, and containing compactly grouped modified phagocytes such as epithelioid cells, giant cells, and other macrophages.
Topographic area of the inferior abdomen related to the inguinal canal, lateral to the pubic region. SYN inguen, inguinal region, regio inguinalis, iliac region. Sometimes used to indicate just the crease in the junction of the thigh with the trunk.
Genitourinary (GU)
Relating to the organs of reproduction and urination. SYN urinogenital, urinosexual, urogenital.
A localized mass of extravasated blood that is relatively or completely confined within an organ or tissue, a space, or a potential space; the blood is usually clotted or partly clotted, and, depending on how long it has been there, may manifest various degrees of organization and decolorization.
Protrusion of a part or structure through the tissues normally containing it.
Surgical repair of a hernia.
Horseshoe kidney
Union of the lower or occasionally the upper extremities of the two kidneys by a band of tissue extending across the vertebral column.
Clinically, the taking in of water; used commonly in the sense of reduced hydration or dehydration.
SYN ureterectasia dilation of a ureter, SYN megaloureter.
The presence of an abnormally low concentration of K+ ions in the circulating blood. Occurs in familial periodic paralysis and in potassium depletion due to excessive loss from the gastrointestinal tract or kidneys.
Excretion of urine of low specific gravity, due to inability of the tubules of the kidneys to produce a concentrated urine; also occurs following excessive water ingestion in diabetes insipidus.
Removal of the uterus.
Ileal conduit
An isolated segment of ileum serving as a cutaneous replacement for the urinary bladder, into which ureters can be implanted, the lumen of which is connected to the skin; following cystectomy or other loss of bladder function SYN ileal bladder.
Inabled, deprived of capacity or natural power.
Unable to hold in. inability to prevent the discharge of any of the excretions.
The entrance into a canal or hollow organ, as the vagina.
Pertaining to a neoplasm, an abnormal tissue that grows by cellular proliferation more rapidly than normal and continues to grow after the stimuli that initiated the new growth cease. Neoplasms show partial or complete lack of structural organization and functional coordination with the normal tissue. Either benugn or malignant.
Nephrophthisis, juvenile
Cysctic disease of renal medulla characterised by polydipsia and polyuria, anemia and renal failure.
Dulled, obtunded reflexes.
Removal of one or both testes. SYN orchectomy, orchidectomy, testectomy.
Paleness. Deficiency of color, especially of the face.
Prophylactic, prophylaxis
Preventing disease.
Exhibiting impenetrability by x-rays or any other form of radiation.
Rales (heard in chest)
Ambiguous sound for an added sound heard on auscultation of breath sounds.
Rebound tenderness
Tender sensitive or painful as a result of pressure or contact that is not sufficient to cause discomfort in normal tissues.
Rebound tenderness, felt when pressure, particularly on the abdomen is suddenly released.
Spontaneous restoration of the continuity of the lumen of any occluded duct or tube, as with post vasectomy recanalization.
Residual urine
Urine remaining in bladder after micturition in cases of prostatic obstruction.
Bent backward or posteriorly. SYN retroflected.
Rub (heard in chest)
Friction rub sound caused by inflammation of the pleura. Pericardial rub pericardial sound.
Boat-shaped, hollowed. (scaphoid bone)
Scrotum, a musculocutaneous sac containing the testes.
Septra DS (sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim)
Sulfonamide. Treatment of urinary tract infections.
A foul-smelling, pasty accumulation of desquamated epidermal cells and sebum that has collected in moist areas of the genitalia.
Snare (noun)
An instrument for removing polyps and other projections from a surface, especially within a cavity; consists of a wire loop passed around the base of the tumor and gradually tightened.
Cysts of the epididymis containing spermatozoa.
Above the pubic bone.
Having three lobes.
Formation of calculus in the ureter or ureters.
An optical device passed in a retrograde fashion through the bladder up into the ureter to inspect the uretheral lumen and kidney collecting system.
UV (junction)
Ureterovesical junction, the site of entry of the ureter into the bladder with an oblique angulation through the detrusor to avoid reflux.
Urinary hesitancy
An involuntary delay or inability in starting the urinary stream.
Vaginal vault
A part resembling an arched roof or dome, e.g. the nonmuscular upper part of the nasopharynx, vault of the vagina.
Varices, varix
A dilated vein. An enlarged and tortuous vein, artery, or lymphatic vessel.
Vicodin (hydrocodone and acetamenophen)
Analgesic, narcotic, relief of moderate to severe pain, antitussive (hydrocodone).
Vulvar/ vulval
Vulva, external genitalia of the female. SYN cunnus, pudendum femininum, trema.