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18 Cards in this Set

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Urinalysis Tests
1. Color
2. pH
3. Protein
4. Glucose
5. Specific gravity
6. Ketone bodies
7. Sediment
8. Pus
9. Phenylketonuria (PKU)
10. Bilirubin
Color
yellow (Amber), straw.
colorless indicates large amount
of water in urine,
smokey-red or brown means blood
pH
Reveals chemical nature of urine
acidic or alkaline
Normal urine is slightly acidic
pH= 6.4
infections, pH more alkaline, due to bacteria which release
ammonia
Protein
When test is positive, albumin is usually responsible. Albumin is the major protein in blood plasma. If present, indicates a
leak in the glomerular membrane.
microalbuminuria
More sensitive testing, when ordinary tests are negative. Microalbuminuria is recognized as the earliest sign of renal involvement in diabetes mellitus.
Glucose
Sugar is not normally found in urine. If present, indicates diabetes mellitus.
In diabetes mellitus, excess of sugar in bloodstream leads to spilling over of sugar into urine.
Renal tubules cannot reabsorb all the sugar that filters out thru glomerular membrane.
Specific gravity
Reflects the amounts of wastes, minerals, and solids in urine.
It is a comparison of the density of urine with that of
water. Urine of diabetes mellitus patients has a higher-than-normal specific gravity because of the presence of sugar.
Ketone bodies
Sometimes referred to as acetones. Are breakdown products resulting from fat catabolism in cells. Ketones accumulate in large quantities in blood and urine when body breaks down fat instead of sugar for fuel.
Ketonuria occurs in ___
diabetes mellitus, when cells deprived of sugar must use up their fat for energy.
ketosis (ketones in the blood) is dangerous because ________
Ketones increase the acidity of the blood (acidosis), which can lead to coma (unconsciousness)
and death.
Sediment test
abnormal particles are present in the urine, sign of pathological condition.
Abnormal particles in a sediment test
cells (epithelial cells, WBCs,
RBCs), bacteria, crystals,
casts ( cylindrical structures of protein often containing cellular elements).
Pus test
Pyuria gives a turbid (cloudy) appearance to urine.
Large number of leukocytes are present becuase of infection or inflammation of kidney or bladder.
Phenylketonuria (PKU)
Done just after birth. Detects phenylalanine in the blood. Infant is fed a low-protein diet that excludes phenylalanine to prevent mental retardation. The child remains on this diet until adulthood.
Pheynlketones
substances that accumulate in the urine of infants born lacking the enzyme phenylalanine hydroxylase.
Phenylalanine hydroxylase
Necessary in cells to change one amino acid (phenylalanine) to another amino acid (tyrosine).
Bilirubin
Indication of liver or gallbladder disease. Presence of bilirubin, pigment substance resulting from hemoglobin breakdown.
hyperbilirubinemia
diseased liver has difficulty removing bilirubin from the blood, causes bilirubinuria (excessive bilirubin in urine)