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74 Cards in this Set

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cali/o
calic/o
calyx
caliectasis
dilation of the calices, usually due to obstruction or infection. SYN calicectasis, pyelocaliectasis
caliceal
relating to the calix SYN calyceal
cyst/o
urinary bladder
cystitis
Bacterial infections often cause acute or chronic cystitis. In acute cystitis, the bladder (contains blood) as a result of mucosal hemorrhages.
cystectomy
Excision of the urinary bladder, excision of the gallbladder (cholecystectomy).
cystostomy
Creation of an opening into the urinary bladder. SYN vesicostomy
An opening is made into the urinary bladder form the outside of the body. A catheter is placed into the bladder for drainage.
glomerul/o
glomerulus (collection of capillaries)
glomerular, glomerulose
meat/o
meatus
meatal stenosis
stenosis: a stricture of any canal or orifice.
meatotomy
An incision made to enlarge the meatus
nephr/o
kidney
paranephric
pertaining to the paranephros: (pl. paranephroi) suprarenal gland
nephropathy
any disease of the kidney SYN nephropathia, nephrosis
nephroptosis
prolapse(ptosis or sinking) of the kidney
nephrolithotomy
Incision into the kidney for the removal of a renal calculus.
nephrosclerosis
Fibrosis of the kidney from overgrowth and contraction of the interstitial connective tissue.
hydronephrosis
Dilation of the pelvis and calices of one or both kidneys. May result from obstruction to the flow of urine, versicoureteral reflux, or primary congenital deformity w/o apparent cause. SYN pelvocaliectasis, pyeloureterctasis.
nephrostomy
making an opening between the collecting system of the kidney through its parenchyma to the exterior of the body, either by surgical incision or percutaneously(thru a catheter, using the Seldinger technique).
pyel/o
renal pelvis
pyelolithotomy
Removal of a large calculus that contributes to blockage of urine flow and development of infection.
ren/o
kidney
renal ischemia
ischemia:local anemia due to mechanical obstruction of blood supply (mainly arterial narrowing or disruption).
renal colic
Colic is intermittent spasms of pain caused by inflammation and distention of a hollow organ. In renal colic, pain results from calculi in the kidney or ureter.
trigon/o
trigone (region of the bladder)
trigonitis
Inflammation of the urinary bladder, localized in the trigone.
ureter/o
ureter
ureteroplasty
Surgical reconstruction of the ureters.
ureterolithotomy
Removal of a stone lodged in a ureter.
ureteroileostomy
After cystectomy, urologists form a pouch from a segment of the ileum and use it in place of the bladder to carry urine from the ureters out of the body. It is an ileal conduit.
urethr/o
urethra
urethritis
Inflammation of the urethra
urethroplasty
Surgical reconstruction of the urethra.
urethral stricture
Stricture: abnormal narrowing of an opening or passageway.
vesic/o
urinary bladder
perivesical
SYN percystic, surrounding the urinary bladder.
vesicoureteral reflux
backward flow of urine from bladder into ureter.
albumin/o
albumin (blood protein)
albuminuria
(-uria means urine condition) This finidng can indicate malfunction of the kidney as protein leaks out of damaged glomeruli.
azot/o
nitrogen
azotemia
This is reflected in an elevated BUN (blood urea nitrogen) test.
bacteri/o
bacteria
bacteriuria
Usually a sign of infection.
dips/o
thirst
polydipsia
Excessive thirst that is relatively prolonged. A sign of diabetes insipidus or diabetes mellitus.
ket/o
keton/o
ketone bodies (ketoacids and acetone)
ketosis
A condition characterised by enhanced production of ketone bodies, as in diabetes mellitus or starvation. Often called ketoacidosis because acids accumulate in the blood.
ketonuria
Enhanced urinary excretion of ketone bodies.
lith/o
stone
nephrolithiasis
Presence of renal calculi.
noct/i
night
nocturia
Purposeful urination at night, after waking from sleep.
olig/o
scanty
oliguria
Scanty urine production.
-poietin
substance that forms
erythropoietin
A sialic acid-containing protein that enhances erythropoiesis by stimulating formation of proerythroblasts and release of reticulocytes from bone marrow; formed by kidney and liver, and possibly by other tissues, can be detected in human plasma and urine.
py/o
pus
pyuria
Presence of pus in the urine when voided.
-tripsy
to crush
lithotripsy
The crushing of a stone in the renal pelvis, ureter, or bladder, by mechanical force or focused sound energy. SYN lithotrity.
ur/o
urine (urea)
uremia
This toxic state results when nitrogenous waste products accumulate greatly in the blood.
enuresis
Literally, a condition of being in urine, and also called bedwetting.
diuresis
Commonly denotes production of unusually large volumes of urine. di- (from dia-) means complete. Caffeine and alcohol can produce diuresis, acting as diuretics to produce a diluted urine.
antidiuretic hormone
Also called ADH. A hormone from the pituitary gland, and literally meaning against diuresis, normally acts on the renal tubules to cause water to be reabsorbed into the bloodstream.
urin/o
urine
urinary incontinence
Incontinence literally means not(in-) able to hold(tin) together(con-). This is loss of control of the passage of urine from the bladder. Stress incontinence occurs with strain on the bladder opening when coughing or sneezing. Urgency incontinence occurs with inability to hold back urination when feeling the urge to void.
urinary retention
This symptom results with blockage to the outflow of urine from the bladder.
-uria
urination, urine condition
dysuria
Difficulty or pain in urination.
anuria
Absence of urine formation.
hematuria
Presence of blood or RBCs in the urine.
glycosuria
SYN glucosuria, glycuresis, urinary excretion of carbohydrates. A symptom of diabetes mellitus.
polyuria
Excessive excretion of urine resulting in profuse and frequent micturition. A symptom of both diabetes insipidus and diabetes mellitus.