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51 Cards in this Set

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measurement of urea levels in blood. Normally, blood urea level is low. When kidney is diseased urea accumulates in the blood, leading to unconsciousness and death.
creatinine clearance test
measures the rate at which creatinine is cleared from the body by the kidney. Creatinine levels in a blood sample is compared with the amount of creatinine excreted in the urine during a 24-hour period. A disproportinate amount of creatinine in the blood compared with urine is a sign of kidney malfunction.
CT scan
x-ray image with detailed cross-sectional views of organs and tissues.
CT scan is used to diagnose what kind of kidney diseases?
With or without contrast material. Tumors, cysts, abscesses, and hydronephritis.
intravenous pyelogram (IVP)
X-ray image of the kidney and uterus after injection of contrast into vein. Also called an excretory urogram.
What can an IVP reveal?
Shows cysts, tumors, infections, hydronephrosis, and calculi.
kidneys, ureters and bladder (KUB)
X-ray examination, without contrast of the kidneys, ureters and bladder. Demonstrates size and location of kidneys in relation to other organs in the abdominopelvic area.
renal angiography
X-ray examination (with contrast) of the vascular system of the kidney. Helps diagnose kidney tumors and outline renal vessels in hypertensive patients.
retrograde pyelogram (RP)
X-ray images of the kidneys, ureters, and bladder after injecting contrast through a urinary catheter into the ureters.
retrograde pyelogram is useful in locating what?
locating urinary stones and obstructions, helpful when poor renal function makes it impossibel to viualize the urinary tract with intravenous contrast agents as in an IVP. substitute for an IVP when patient is allergic to IV contrast material.
voiding cystourethrogram (VCUG)
X-ray record (with contrast) of the urinary bladder, ureters, and urethra while the patient is expelling urine.
Process of imaging urinary tract structures using high frequency sound waves.
what is ultrasonography used to diagnose?
Kidney size, tumors, hydronephrosis, polycystic kidney, and ureteral ad bladder obstruction.
radioisotope scan
Image of the kidney after injecting into the bloodstream a radioactive substance (isotope) that concentrates in the kidney.
What does a radioisotope scan show?
size and shape of the kidney (renal scan) and its function (renogram). Indicate size of blood vessels, diagnose obstruction, and determine the individual functioning of each kidney.
magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)
A magnetic field and radio waves produce images of the kidney and surrounding structures in all three planes of the body.
Direct visual examination of urinary bladder with an endoscope (cystoscope).
What is examined by a cystoscope?
Examine bladder mucosa for tumors, calculi, or inflammation. A catheter can be inserted through a cystoscope to withdraw urine samples and insject contrast material.
A cystoscope that gives a wide-angle view of the bladder.
process of seperating nitrogenous waste materials from the bloodstream when the kidneys no longer function.
hemodialysis (HD)
Uses an artificial kidney machine that receives waste-filled blood from the patient's bloodstream, filters it, and returns the dialysed blood to the patient's body.
peritoneal dialysis (PD)
Using a peritoneal catheter, dialysate (the dialysis solution) is introduced to the peritoneal cavity. Fluid causes wastes in the capillaries fo the peritoneum to pass out of the bloodstream and into the fluid. Fluid (with wastes) is then removed by the catheter.
What are the two kinds of PD?
1.CAPD, continuous ambulatory PD, is performed continuously by the patient without artifical support.
2. CCPD, continuous cycling PD, with the aid of mechanical apparatus at night during sleep.
What is the catheter used in peritoneal dialysis called?
A Tenckhoff peritoneal catheter.
extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL)
Shock waves crush urinary tract stones, which then pass from the body in urine.
renal angioplasty
Dilation of narrowed areasin renal arteries. An inflatable balloon attached to a catheter is inserted into the artery. Afterwards, stents (metal meshed tubes) may be inserted to keep the vessel open.
renal biopsy
Removal of kidney tissue with microscopic examination by a pathologist. Performed at time of surgery (open) or through skin (percutaneous, closed).
renal transplantation
Surgical transfer of a complete kidney from a donor to a recipient. From identical twin (isograft), or other individual (allograft), or from a cadaver. Best results when donors are related.
If the left kidney of donor is removed, where is it transplanted in the recipient?
In the right pelvis. The donor renal artery and vein are joined to the recipient's, and the lower end of donor ureter is connected to the recipient's bladder (ureteroneocystostomy).
What is ureteroneocystostomy?
Connecting the donor ureter to the recipient's bladder.
urinary catheterization
Passage of a flexible, tubular instrument through the urethra into the urinary bladder. Catheters are used primarily for short- or long-term drainage of urine.
What is a Foley catheter?
An indwelling (left in the bladder) catheter held in place by a balloon inflated with air or liquid.
Acute Renal Failure
blood urea nitrogen
continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis
continuous cycling peritoneal dialysis
chronic kidney disease, a condition during which serum creatinine and BUN levels rise and may result in impairment of all body systems.
chronic renal failure, progressive loss of kidney function.
cystoscopic examination
end-stage renal disease
extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy
interstitial cystitis, chronic inflammation of the bladder wall, not caused by bacterial infection and not responsive to conventional antibiotic therapy.
intravenous pyelogram
kidney, ureter, and bladder
peritoneal dialysis
sp gr
specific gravity
urinary tract infection
voiding cystourethrogram