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8 Cards in this Set

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Explain how skin and mucous membranes act as barriers against disease
The best way to prevent disease is to keep a pathogen from entering the body. Unbroken skin is a major defense against pathogens. Areas where skin is not present (membranous areas) are weak points.
Secondary type of defense in these areas such as:
Lungs - mucus and cilia, which transport the mucus to the throat to be swallowed

Stomach - very acidic environment

Eyes - tears contain lysosomes (enzymes that destroy bacterial cell walls)

Vagina - mucus and acidic environment
Entrance of a pathogen is called:
An infection, does not always lead to disease
What defends against pathogens that have entered the body and where are they found?
Leukocytes (WBC). They are found in the blood and throughout body tissues. Many types exist, some are phagocytic and 'eat' any cell that is not recognized as belonging to the body.
Define-
Antigen?
Antibody?
Antigen - a molecule recognized as foreign to the immune system

Antibody - a globular protein that recognizes an antigen (also known as immunoglobulin).
Different types of lymphocytes exist. What do each of the types do?
Each type recognizes one specific antigen and reponds by dividing to form a clone. This clone then secretes a specific antibody against the antigen.
Antibodies are produced by:
B-lymphocytes or B-cells. These are one kind of leukocytes. All blood cells are produced in the bone marrow. B-cells also differentiate in the bone marrow before moving to the lymph nodes.
Outline the effects of HIV on the immune system
There is a reduction in the number of active leukocytes and a loss of ability to produce antibodies.