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44 Cards in this Set

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TOP IMPORTANT WORDS FOR COMP
RESERVOIRS
-EXHCHANGE POOLS
-NITROGEN FIXATION
-MINERALS
-IGNEOUS ROCK
-SEDIMENTARY ROCK
-METAMORPHIC ROCK
DESCRIB 1
WHILE ENERY IS RECYLED IN BIOLOGICAL SYSTEMS, INORGANIC NUTRIENTS ARE
DESCRIB 2
THE WATER CYCLE INVOLVES WATER VAPOR, PRECIPITATION, EVAPORATION, AND TRANSPIRATION, THE MAIN RESERVOIR FOR WATER IS THE OCEAN ARE
DESCO 3
TWO MAIN REACTIONS THAT POWER THE CARBON CYCLE ARE PHOTSYNTHESIS AND CELLULAR REPIRATION: THE MAIN RESERVOIRS FOR CARBON ARE IN TEH OCEANS AND IN ROCKS
DESCO. 4-THE NITROGEN CYCLE INVOLVES THE TRANSFORMATION OF THE:
HIGHLY UNREACTIVE ATMOSPHERIC NITROGEN INTO VARIOUS COMPOUNDS USABLE BY LIVING ORGANISMS
-IT IS LIVING ORGANISMS THAT DO MUCH OF THE TRANSFORMING. tHE MAIN RESEVIOR IS***NITROGEN*** is in the atmosphere
desco. 5-WHILE THE ROCK CYCLE DOES NOT INVOLVE
INORGANIC NUTRIENTS, IT IS HIGHLY IMPORTANT NONETHLESS: ROCKS HOLD MINERALS AND PARTICIPATE IN BOTH THE WATER AND CARBON CYCLE
THE TEACHER POSSESSES KNOW, AND LEDGE
OF IMPORTANT NATURAL CYCLES
A) BIOGEOCHEMICAL CYCLES
-IMPORTANT INORGANIC CHEMICALS ARE RECYCLED INTO THE ECOSYSTEM
-THESE ORANISMS THROUGH BT ALSO ENTER INTO THE HAS ITS OWN UNIQUE CYCLE, BUT ALL OF THE CYCLES DO HAVE SOME THINGS IN COMMON ATMOSPHERE,-BUT ALL OF THE CYCLES DO HAVE SOME OCEANS AND EVEN ROCKS
-EACH CHEMICAL
A) BIOGEOCHEMICAL CYCLES-reservoirs
those parts of the cycle where the chemical is held in large quantities for long periods of time. The oceans are a resevior for waters
A) BIOGEOCHEMICAL CYCLES-exchange pools
these parts of cycle where teh chemical is held for a short term. Clouds are exchange pools for water
Living organisms may serve as exchange
pools and to move chemical from one stage of the cycle to another
THE WATER CYCLE-
-THE ENERGY IN THIS CYCLE IS SUPPLIED BY THE SUN, WHICH DRIVES EVAPORATION
THE WATER CYCLE-
THE SUN ALSO PROVIDES ENERGY DRIVES WEATHER SYSTEMS MOVES VAPOR (IN THE FORM OF CLOUDS) FROM ONE TO ANOTHER
THE WATER CYCLE-PRECIPITAION
WHEN WATER Condenses from a gaseous state in the atmosphere and falls to earth
THE WATER CYCLE-Evaporation
is teh reverse process in which liquid water becomes gaseous
THE WATER CYCLE-once water condenses, gravity pulls it to the ground;
gravity continues to pull until the water reaches the ocean
THE WATER CYCLE-Frozen water may be trapped as snow or ice for very long periods of time
time
the oceans ar earth ocean salty -why
because an erosion f minerals that occur as the water runs to the ocean w to the mineral content leave the oceans except by evaporation leave s teh minerals behindill
Key concepts for understanding the water cycle:
Water can exist in the form of water vapour, an invisible odourless gas.[1]

Air contains this invisible vapour.

When water vapour condenses tiny droplets of liquid water form. If enough of these droplets join together, gravity causes them to fall as rain.

The amount of water vapour in air can vary.

The rate of evaporation is influenced by heat, atmospheric pressure, and wind.

Evaporation separates water from solids which are dissolved in it. (This is why rain is not usually salty even though much of the water that becomes rain has evaporated from the sea.)

Earth is a “closed system”. There is a finite amount of water. Water constantly cycles between the surface of Earth and the Earth’s atmosphere.
The earth has a limited amount of water. That water keeps going around and around and around and around and (well, you get the idea) in what we call the "Water Cycle".
This cycle is made up of a few main parts:

evaporation (and transpiration)
condensation
precipitation
collection
The Water Cycle (also known as the hydrologic cycle)
The Water Cycle (also known as the hydrologic cycle) is the journey water takes as it circulates from the land to the sky and back again.

The Sun's heat provides energy to evaporate water from the Earth's surface (oceans, lakes, etc.). Plants also lose water to the air (this is called transpiration). The water vapor eventually condenses, forming tiny droplets in clouds. When the clouds meet cool air over land, precipitation (rain, sleet, or snow) is triggered, and water returns to the land (or sea). Some of the precipitation soaks into the ground. Some of the underground water is trapped between rock or clay layers; this is called groundwater. But most of the water flows downhill as runoff (above ground or underground), eventually returning to the seas as slightly salty water.

WHY ARE THE OCEANS SALTY?

Oceans cover about 70% of the Earth's surface. The oceans contain roughly 97% of the Earth's water supply.
As water flows through rivers, it picks up small amounts of mineral salts from the rocks and soil of the river beds. This very-slightly salty water flows into the oceans and seas. The water in the oceans only leaves by evaporating (and the freezing of polar ice), but the salt remains dissolved in the ocean - it does not evaporate. So the remaining water gets saltier and saltier as time passes.
The Earth's water is always in movement:
The Earth's water is always in movement, and the water cycle, also known as the hydrologic cycle, describes the continuous movement of water on, above, and below the surface of the Earth. Since the water cycle is truly a "cycle," there is no beginning or end. Water can change states among liquid, vapor, and ice at various places in the water cycle, with these processes happening in the blink of an eye and over millions of years. Although the balance of water on Earth remains fairly constant over time, individual water molecules can come and go in a hurry.
The water cycle has no starting or ending point:
The sun, which drives the water cycle, heats water in the oceans. Some of it evaporates as vapor into the air. Ice and snow can sublimate directly into water vapor. Rising air currents take the vapor up into the atmosphere, along with water from evapotranspiration, which is water transpired from plants and evaporated from the soil. The vapor rises into the air where cooler temperatures cause it to condense into clouds. Air currents move clouds around the globe, cloud particles collide, grow, and fall out of the sky as precipitation. Some precipitation falls as snow and can accumulate as ice caps and glaciers, which can store frozen water for thousands of years. Snowpacks in warmer climates often thaw and melt when spring arrives, and the melted water flows overland as snowmelt. Most precipitation falls back into the oceans or onto land, where, due to gravity, the precipitation flows over the ground as surface runoff. A portion of runoff enters rivers in valleys in the landscape, with streamflow moving water towards the oceans. Runoff, and ground-water seepage, accumulate and are stored as freshwater in lakes. Not all runoff flows into rivers. Much of it soaks into the ground as infiltration. Some water infiltrates deep into the ground and replenishes aquifers (saturated subsurface rock), which store huge amounts of freshwater for long periods of time. Some infiltration stays close to the land surface and can seep back into surface-water bodies (and the ocean) as ground-water discharge, and some ground water finds openings in the land surface and emerges as freshwater springs. Over time, the water continues flowing, some to reenter the ocean, where the water cycle renews itself.

The different processes are as follows:
diffrient process of the water cycle
The different processes are as follows:

Precipitation is condensed water vapor that falls to the Earth's surface. Most precipitation occurs as rain, but also includes snow, hail, fog drip, graupel, and sleet.[1] Approximately 505,000 km³ of water fall as precipitation each year, 398,000 km³ of it over the oceans.[2]
Canopy interception is the precipitation that is intercepted by plant foliage and eventually evaporates back to the atmosphere rather than falling to the ground.
Snowmelt refers to the runoff produced by melting snow.
Runoff includes the variety of ways by which water moves across the land. This includes both surface runoff and channel runoff. As it flows, the water may infiltrate into the ground, evaporate into the air, become stored in lakes or reservoirs, or be extracted for agricultural or other human uses.
Infiltration is the flow of water from the ground surface into the ground. Once infiltrated, the water becomes soil moisture or groundwater.[3]
Subsurface Flow is the flow of water underground, in the vadose zone and aquifers. Subsurface water may return to the surface (eg. as a spring or by being pumped) or eventually seep into the oceans. Water returns to the land surface at lower elevation than where it infiltrated, under the force of gravity or gravity induced pressures. Groundwater tends to move slowly, and is replenished slowly, so it can remain in aquifers for thousands of years.
Evaporation is the transformation of water from liquid to gas phases as it moves from the ground or bodies of water into the overlying atmosphere.[4] The source of energy for evaporation is primarily solar radiation. Evaporation often implicitly includes transpiration from plants, though together they are specifically referred to as evapotranspiration. Approximately 90% of atmospheric water comes from evaporation, while the remaining 10% is from transpiration.[citation needed] Total annual evapotranspiration amounts to approximately 505,000 km³ of water, 434,000 km³ of which evaporates from the oceans.[5]
Sublimation is the state change directly from solid water (snow or ice) to water vapor.[6]
Advection is the movement of water — in solid, liquid, or vapour states — through the atmosphere. Without advection, water that evaporated over the oceans could not precipitate over land.[7]
Condensation is the transformation of water vapour to liquid water droplets in the air, producing clouds and fog.[8]
transpiration
Transpiration is the evaporation of water from the aerial parts of plants, especially leaves but also stems, flowers and fruits. Leaf transpiration occurs through stomata, and can be thought of as a necessary "cost" associated with the opening of stomata to allow the diffusion of carbon dioxide gas from the air for photosynthesis. Transpiration also cools plants and enables mass flow of mineral nutrients from roots to shoots. Mass flow is caused by the decrease in hydrostatic (water) pressure in the upper parts of the plants due to the diffusion of water out of stomata into the atmosphere. Water is absorbed at the roots by osmosis, and any dissolved mineral nutrients travel with it through the xylem.

The rate of transpiration is directly related to the degree of stomatal opening, and to the evaporative demand of the atmosphere surrounding the leaf. The amount of water lost by a plant depends on its size, along with the surrounding light intensity, temperature, humidity, and wind speed (all of which influence evaporative demand). Soil water supply and soil temperature can influence stomatal opening, and thus transpiration rate.

A fully grown tree may lose several hundred gallons (a few cubic meters) of water through its leaves on a hot, dry day. About 90% of the water that enters a plant's roots is used for this process. The transpiration ratio is the ratio of the mass of water transpired to the mass of dry matter produced; the transpiration ratio of crops tends to fall between 200 and 1000 (i.e., crop plants transpire 200 to 1000 kg of water for every kg of dry matter produced) (Martin, Leonard & Stamp 1976, p. 81).

Transpiration rate of plants can be measured by a number of techniques, including potometers, lysimeters, porometers, and heat balance sap flow gauges.

Desert plants and conifers have specially adapted structures, such as thick cuticles, reduced leaf areas, sunken stomata and hairs to reduce transpiration and conserve water. Many cacti conduct photosynthesis in succulent stems, rather than leaves, so the surface area of the shoot is very low. Many desert plants have a special type of photosynthesis, termed Crassulacean acid metabolism or CAM photosynthesis in which the stomata are closed during the day and open at night when transpiration will be lower.
C.THE CARBON CYCLE
The carbon cycle is the biogeochemical cycle by which carbon is exchanged between the biosphere, geosphere, hydrosphere, and atmosphere of the Earth.

The cycle is usually thought of as four major reservoirs of carbon interconnected by pathways of exchange. The reservoirs are the atmosphere, the terrestrial biosphere (which usually includes freshwater systems and non-living organic material, such as soil carbon), the oceans (which includes dissolved inorganic carbon and living and non-living marine biota), and the sediments (which includes fossil fuels). The annual movements of carbon, the carbon exchanges between reservoirs, occur because of various chemical, physical, geological, and biological processes. The ocean contains the largest active pool of carbon near the surface of the Earth, but the deep ocean part of this pool does not rapidly exchange with the atmosphere.

The global carbon budget is the balance of the exchanges (incomes and losses) of carbon between the carbon reservoirs or between one specific loop (e.g., atmosphere - biosphere) of the carbon cycle. An examination of the carbon budget of a pool or reservoir can provide information about whether the pool or reservoir is functioning as a source or sink for carbon dioxide to happen.
THE CARBON CYCLE ALSO ND INVOLVES TWO MAIN POINTS:
PHOTOSYNTHESIS AND CELLULAR RESPIRATION
tHE CARBON CYCLE-EARTHS ATMOSHPHER
Carbon exists in the Earth's atmosphere primarily as the gas carbon dioxide (CO2). Although it is a very small part of the atmosphere overall (approximately 0.04% on a molar basis, though rising), it plays an important role in supporting life. Other gases containing carbon in the atmosphere are methane and chlorofluorocarbons (the latter is entirely anthropogenic). The overall atmospheric concentration of these greenhouse gases has been increasing in recent decades, contributing to global warming.[1]

Carbon is taken from the atmosphere in several ways:

When the sun is shining, plants perform photosynthesis to convert carbon dioxide into carbohydrates, releasing oxygen in the process. This process is most prolific in relatively new forests where tree growth is still rapid.
At the surface of the oceans towards the poles, seawater becomes cooler and more carbonic acid is formed as CO2 becomes more soluble. This is coupled to the ocean's thermohaline circulation which transports dense surface water into the ocean's interior (see the entry on the solubility pump).
In upper ocean areas of high biological productivity, organisms convert reduced carbon to tissues, or carbonates to hard body parts such as shells and tests. These are, respectively, oxidized (soft-tissue pump) and redissolved (carbonate pump) at lower average levels of the ocean than those at which they formed, resulting in a downward flow of carbon (see entry on the biological pump).
The weathering of silicate rock. Carbonic acid reacts with weathered rock to produce bicarbonate ions. The bicarbonate ions produced are carried to the ocean, where they are used to make marine carbonates. Unlike dissolved CO2 in equilibrium or tissues which decay, weathering does not move the carbon into a reservoir from which it can readily return to the atmosphere.
Carbon can be released back into the atmosphere in many different ways,

Through the respiration performed by plants and animals. This is an exothermic reaction and it involves the breaking down of glucose (or other organic molecules) into carbon dioxide and water.
Through the decay of animal and plant matter. Fungi and bacteria break down the carbon compounds in dead animals and plants and convert the carbon to carbon dioxide if oxygen is present, or methane if not.
Through combustion of organic material which oxidizes the carbon it contains, producing carbon dioxide (and other things, like water vapor). Burning fossil fuels such as coal, petroleum products, and natural gas releases carbon that has been stored in the geosphere for millions of years.
Production of cement. Carbon dioxide is released when limestone (calcium carbonate) is heated to produce lime (calcium oxide), a component of cement.
At the surface of the oceans where the water becomes warmer, dissolved carbon dioxide is released back into the atmosphere
Volcanic eruptions and metamorphism release gases into the atmosphere. These gases include water vapor, carbon dioxide and sulfur dioxide. The carbon dioxide released is roughly equal to the amount removed by silicate weathering; so the two processes, which are the chemical reverse of each other, sum to roughly zero, and do not affect the level of atmospheric carbon dioxide on time scales of less than about 100,000 yr.
THE CARBON CYCLE-IN THE BIOSPHERE
Carbon exists in the Earth's atmosphere primarily as the gas carbon dioxide (CO2). Although it is a very small part of the atmosphere overall (approximately 0.04% on a molar basis, though rising), it plays an important role in supporting life. Other gases containing carbon in the atmosphere are methane and chlorofluorocarbons (the latter is entirely anthropogenic). The overall atmospheric concentration of these greenhouse gases has been increasing in recent decades, contributing to global warming.[1]

Carbon is taken from the atmosphere in several ways:

When the sun is shining, plants perform photosynthesis to convert carbon dioxide into carbohydrates, releasing oxygen in the process. This process is most prolific in relatively new forests where tree growth is still rapid.
At the surface of the oceans towards the poles, seawater becomes cooler and more carbonic acid is formed as CO2 becomes more soluble. This is coupled to the ocean's thermohaline circulation which transports dense surface water into the ocean's interior (see the entry on the solubility pump).
In upper ocean areas of high biological productivity, organisms convert reduced carbon to tissues, or carbonates to hard body parts such as shells and tests. These are, respectively, oxidized (soft-tissue pump) and redissolved (carbonate pump) at lower average levels of the ocean than those at which they formed, resulting in a downward flow of carbon (see entry on the biological pump).
The weathering of silicate rock. Carbonic acid reacts with weathered rock to produce bicarbonate ions. The bicarbonate ions produced are carried to the ocean, where they are used to make marine carbonates. Unlike dissolved CO2 in equilibrium or tissues which decay, weathering does not move the carbon into a reservoir from which it can readily return to the atmosphere.
Carbon can be released back into the atmosphere in many different ways,

Through the respiration performed by plants and animals. This is an exothermic reaction and it involves the breaking down of glucose (or other organic molecules) into carbon dioxide and water.
Through the decay of animal and plant matter. Fungi and bacteria break down the carbon compounds in dead animals and plants and convert the carbon to carbon dioxide if oxygen is present, or methane if not.
Through combustion of organic material which oxidizes the carbon it contains, producing carbon dioxide (and other things, like water vapor). Burning fossil fuels such as coal, petroleum products, and natural gas releases carbon that has been stored in the geosphere for millions of years.
Production of cement. Carbon dioxide is released when limestone (calcium carbonate) is heated to produce lime (calcium oxide), a component of cement.
At the surface of the oceans where the water becomes warmer, dissolved carbon dioxide is released back into the atmosphere
Volcanic eruptions and metamorphism release gases into the atmosphere. These gases include water vapor, carbon dioxide and sulfur dioxide. The carbon dioxide released is roughly equal to the amount removed by silicate weathering; so the two processes, which are the chemical reverse of each other, sum to roughly zero, and do not affect the level of atmospheric carbon dioxide on time scales of less than about 100,000 yr.
THE CARBON CYCLE IN THE OCEAN
In the oceans

"Present day" (1990s) sea surface dissolved inorganic carbon concentration (from the GLODAP climatology)The seas contain around 36,000 gigatonnes of carbon, mostly in the form of bicarbonate ion. Inorganic carbon, that is carbon compounds with no carbon-carbon or carbon-hydrogen bonds, is important in its reactions within water. This carbon exchange becomes important in controlling pH in the ocean and can also vary as a source or sink for carbon. Carbon is readily exchanged between the atmosphere and ocean. In regions of oceanic upwelling, carbon is released to the atmosphere. Conversely, regions of downwelling transfer carbon (CO2) from the atmosphere to the ocean. When CO2 enters the ocean, carbonic acid is formed:

CO2 + H2O ⇌ H2CO3
This reaction has a forward and reverse rate, that is it achieves a chemical
-THE CARBON MODELING CYCLE
[edit] Carbon cycle modelingModels of the carbon cycle can be incorporated into global climate models, so that the interactive response of the oceans and biosphere on future CO2 levels can be modelled. There are considerable uncertainties in this, both in the physical and biogeochemical submodels (especially the latter). Such models typically show that there is a positive feedback between temperature and CO2. For example, Zeng et al. (GRL, 2004 [2]) find that in their model, including a coupled carbon cycle increases atmospheric CO2 by about 90 ppmv at 2100 (over that predicted in models with non-interactive carbon cycles), leading to an extra 0.6°C of warming (which, in turn, may lead to even greater atmospheric CO2).
C.THE CARBON CYCLE
The carbon cycle is the biogeochemical cycle by which carbon is exchanged between the biosphere, geosphere, hydrosphere, and atmosphere of the Earth.

The cycle is usually thought of as four major reservoirs of carbon interconnected by pathways of exchange. The reservoirs are the atmosphere, the terrestrial biosphere (which usually includes freshwater systems and non-living organic material, such as soil carbon), the oceans (which includes dissolved inorganic carbon and living and non-living marine biota), and the sediments (which includes fossil fuels). The annual movements of carbon, the carbon exchanges between reservoirs, occur because of various chemical, physical, geological, and biological processes. The ocean contains the largest active pool of carbon near the surface of the Earth, but the deep ocean part of this pool does not rapidly exchange with the atmosphere.

The global carbon budget is the balance of the exchanges (incomes and losses) of carbon between the carbon reservoirs or between one specific loop (e.g., atmosphere - biosphere) of the carbon cycle. An examination of the carbon budget of a pool or reservoir can provide information about whether the pool or reservoir is functioning as a source or sink for carbon dioxide to happen.
THE CARBON CYCLE ALSO ND INVOLVES TWO MAIN POINTS:
PHOTOSYNTHESIS AND CELLULAR RESPIRATION
tHE CARBON CYCLE-EARTHS ATMOSHPHER
Carbon exists in the Earth's atmosphere primarily as the gas carbon dioxide (CO2). Although it is a very small part of the atmosphere overall (approximately 0.04% on a molar basis, though rising), it plays an important role in supporting life. Other gases containing carbon in the atmosphere are methane and chlorofluorocarbons (the latter is entirely anthropogenic). The overall atmospheric concentration of these greenhouse gases has been increasing in recent decades, contributing to global warming.[1]

Carbon is taken from the atmosphere in several ways:

When the sun is shining, plants perform photosynthesis to convert carbon dioxide into carbohydrates, releasing oxygen in the process. This process is most prolific in relatively new forests where tree growth is still rapid.
At the surface of the oceans towards the poles, seawater becomes cooler and more carbonic acid is formed as CO2 becomes more soluble. This is coupled to the ocean's thermohaline circulation which transports dense surface water into the ocean's interior (see the entry on the solubility pump).
In upper ocean areas of high biological productivity, organisms convert reduced carbon to tissues, or carbonates to hard body parts such as shells and tests. These are, respectively, oxidized (soft-tissue pump) and redissolved (carbonate pump) at lower average levels of the ocean than those at which they formed, resulting in a downward flow of carbon (see entry on the biological pump).
The weathering of silicate rock. Carbonic acid reacts with weathered rock to produce bicarbonate ions. The bicarbonate ions produced are carried to the ocean, where they are used to make marine carbonates. Unlike dissolved CO2 in equilibrium or tissues which decay, weathering does not move the carbon into a reservoir from which it can readily return to the atmosphere.
Carbon can be released back into the atmosphere in many different ways,

Through the respiration performed by plants and animals. This is an exothermic reaction and it involves the breaking down of glucose (or other organic molecules) into carbon dioxide and water.
Through the decay of animal and plant matter. Fungi and bacteria break down the carbon compounds in dead animals and plants and convert the carbon to carbon dioxide if oxygen is present, or methane if not.
Through combustion of organic material which oxidizes the carbon it contains, producing carbon dioxide (and other things, like water vapor). Burning fossil fuels such as coal, petroleum products, and natural gas releases carbon that has been stored in the geosphere for millions of years.
Production of cement. Carbon dioxide is released when limestone (calcium carbonate) is heated to produce lime (calcium oxide), a component of cement.
At the surface of the oceans where the water becomes warmer, dissolved carbon dioxide is released back into the atmosphere
Volcanic eruptions and metamorphism release gases into the atmosphere. These gases include water vapor, carbon dioxide and sulfur dioxide. The carbon dioxide released is roughly equal to the amount removed by silicate weathering; so the two processes, which are the chemical reverse of each other, sum to roughly zero, and do not affect the level of atmospheric carbon dioxide on time scales of less than about 100,000 yr.
THE CARBON CYCLE-IN THE BIOSPHERE
Carbon exists in the Earth's atmosphere primarily as the gas carbon dioxide (CO2). Although it is a very small part of the atmosphere overall (approximately 0.04% on a molar basis, though rising), it plays an important role in supporting life. Other gases containing carbon in the atmosphere are methane and chlorofluorocarbons (the latter is entirely anthropogenic). The overall atmospheric concentration of these greenhouse gases has been increasing in recent decades, contributing to global warming.[1]

Carbon is taken from the atmosphere in several ways:

When the sun is shining, plants perform photosynthesis to convert carbon dioxide into carbohydrates, releasing oxygen in the process. This process is most prolific in relatively new forests where tree growth is still rapid.
At the surface of the oceans towards the poles, seawater becomes cooler and more carbonic acid is formed as CO2 becomes more soluble. This is coupled to the ocean's thermohaline circulation which transports dense surface water into the ocean's interior (see the entry on the solubility pump).
In upper ocean areas of high biological productivity, organisms convert reduced carbon to tissues, or carbonates to hard body parts such as shells and tests. These are, respectively, oxidized (soft-tissue pump) and redissolved (carbonate pump) at lower average levels of the ocean than those at which they formed, resulting in a downward flow of carbon (see entry on the biological pump).
The weathering of silicate rock. Carbonic acid reacts with weathered rock to produce bicarbonate ions. The bicarbonate ions produced are carried to the ocean, where they are used to make marine carbonates. Unlike dissolved CO2 in equilibrium or tissues which decay, weathering does not move the carbon into a reservoir from which it can readily return to the atmosphere.
Carbon can be released back into the atmosphere in many different ways,

Through the respiration performed by plants and animals. This is an exothermic reaction and it involves the breaking down of glucose (or other organic molecules) into carbon dioxide and water.
Through the decay of animal and plant matter. Fungi and bacteria break down the carbon compounds in dead animals and plants and convert the carbon to carbon dioxide if oxygen is present, or methane if not.
Through combustion of organic material which oxidizes the carbon it contains, producing carbon dioxide (and other things, like water vapor). Burning fossil fuels such as coal, petroleum products, and natural gas releases carbon that has been stored in the geosphere for millions of years.
Production of cement. Carbon dioxide is released when limestone (calcium carbonate) is heated to produce lime (calcium oxide), a component of cement.
At the surface of the oceans where the water becomes warmer, dissolved carbon dioxide is released back into the atmosphere
Volcanic eruptions and metamorphism release gases into the atmosphere. These gases include water vapor, carbon dioxide and sulfur dioxide. The carbon dioxide released is roughly equal to the amount removed by silicate weathering; so the two processes, which are the chemical reverse of each other, sum to roughly zero, and do not affect the level of atmospheric carbon dioxide on time scales of less than about 100,000 yr.
THE CARBON CYCLE IN THE OCEAN
In the oceans

"Present day" (1990s) sea surface dissolved inorganic carbon concentration (from the GLODAP climatology)The seas contain around 36,000 gigatonnes of carbon, mostly in the form of bicarbonate ion. Inorganic carbon, that is carbon compounds with no carbon-carbon or carbon-hydrogen bonds, is important in its reactions within water. This carbon exchange becomes important in controlling pH in the ocean and can also vary as a source or sink for carbon. Carbon is readily exchanged between the atmosphere and ocean. In regions of oceanic upwelling, carbon is released to the atmosphere. Conversely, regions of downwelling transfer carbon (CO2) from the atmosphere to the ocean. When CO2 enters the ocean, carbonic acid is formed:

CO2 + H2O ⇌ H2CO3
This reaction has a forward and reverse rate, that is it achieves a chemical
-THE CARBON MODELING CYCLE
[edit] Carbon cycle modelingModels of the carbon cycle can be incorporated into global climate models, so that the interactive response of the oceans and biosphere on future CO2 levels can be modelled. There are considerable uncertainties in this, both in the physical and biogeochemical submodels (especially the latter). Such models typically show that there is a positive feedback between temperature and CO2. For example, Zeng et al. (GRL, 2004 [2]) find that in their model, including a coupled carbon cycle increases atmospheric CO2 by about 90 ppmv at 2100 (over that predicted in models with non-interactive carbon cycles), leading to an extra 0.6°C of warming (which, in turn, may lead to even greater atmospheric CO2).
THE NITROGEN CYCLE
The Nitrogen Cycle
All life requires nitrogen-compounds, e.g., proteins and nucleic acids.
Air, which is 79% nitrogen gas (N2), is the major reservoir of nitrogen.
But most organisms cannot use nitrogen in this form.
Plants must secure their nitrogen in "fixed" form, i.e., incorporated in compounds such as:
nitrate ions (NO3−)
ammonia (NH3)
urea (NH2)2CO
Animals secure their nitrogen (and all other) compounds from plants (or animals that have fed on plants).
Four processes participate in the cycling of nitrogen through the biosphere:
NITRON FIXATION
Nitrogen Fixation
The nitrogen molecule (N2) is quite inert. To break it apart so that its atoms can combine with other atoms requires the input of substantial amounts of energy.

Three processes are responsible for most of the nitrogen fixation in the biosphere:
atmospheric fixation by lightning
biological fixation by certain microbes — alone or in a symbiotic relationship with plants
industrial fixation
Atmospheric Fixation
The enormous energy of lightning breaks nitrogen molecules and enables their atoms to combine with oxygen in the air forming nitrogen oxides. These dissolve in rain, forming nitrates, that are carried to the earth.

Atmospheric nitrogen fixation probably contributes some 5– 8% of the total nitrogen fixed.

Industrial Fixation
Under great pressure, at a temperature of 600°C, and with the use of a catalyst, atmospheric nitrogen and hydrogen (usually derived from natural gas or petroleum) can be combined to form ammonia (NH3). Ammonia can be used directly as fertilizer, but most of its is further processed to urea and ammonium nitrate (NH4NO3).

Biological Fixation
The ability to fix nitrogen is found only in certain bacteria.
Some live in a symbiotic relationship with plants of the legume family (e.g., soybeans, alfalfa). Link to a discussion of symbiotic nitrogen fixation in legumes.

Some establish symbiotic relationships with plants other than legumes (e.g., alders).
Some nitrogen-fixing bacteria live free in the soil.
Nitrogen-fixing cyanobacteria are essential to maintaining the fertility of semi-aquatic environments like rice paddies.
Biological nitrogen fixation requires a complex set of enzymes and a huge expenditure of ATP.

Although the first stable product of the process is ammonia, this is quickly incorporated into protein and other organic nitrogen compounds.
MUTUALISM AND FORM OF SYMBIOSIS
BACTERIA PROVIDES THE LEGUMES WIHT NITRATES AND THE PLANTS PROVIDE THE BACTERIA WITH FOOD AND WATER( FOR EXAMPLE OF MUTUALISM A FORM OF SYMBIOSIS-AFTER PLANTS DIE THEY RETURN TO NITROGEN TO THE SOIL IN THE FORM OF AMMONIA AND THE DETOXIFYING BACTERIA TO WORK
THE ROCK CYCLE-MINERALS
ROCKS ARE MADE UP OF ONE OR MORE MINERALS, HOMOGENOS, NATURALLY OCCURING, INORGANIC SOLIDS THAT POSESS A CHARACTERISTIC STRUCTURE
-FORMED FROM COOLING OF MOLTEN ROCK LAVA
SEDIMENTARY ROCKS
Any rock (igneous, sedimentary, or metamorphic) exposed at the Earth's surface can become a sedimentary rock. The forces of wind, rain, snow, and ice combine to break down or dissolve (weather), and carry away (transport) rocks exposed at the surface. These particles eventually come to rest (deposited) and become hard rock (lithified).
Sedimentary rocks tell us what the Earth's surface was like in the geologic past. They can contain fossils that tell us about the animals and plants or show the climate in an area. Sedimentary rocks are also important because they may contain water for drinking or oil and gas to run our cars and heat our homes
METAMOROPHIC ROCKS
Any rock (igneous, sedimentary, or metamorphic) can become a metamorphic rock. If rocks are buried deep in the Earth at high temperatures and pressures, they form new minerals and textures all without melting. If melting occurs, magma is formed, starting the rock cycle all over again.
Geologists can learn the following about the Earth from the study of metamorphic rocks:

the temperature and pressure conditions (metamorphic environment) in which the rock was formed
the composition of the parent, or original unmetamorphosed, rock.
aids in the interpretation of the platetectonic setting in which the metamorphism took place
aids in the reconstruction of the geological history of an area.
The term "metamorphic" means "to change form." Changes in the temperature and pressure conditions cause the minerals in the rock to become unstable so they either reorient themselves into layers (foliation) or recrystallize into larger crystals, all without undergoing melting.
iNGENOUS ROCKS
There are places on Earth that are so hot that rocks melt to form magma. Because magma is liquid and usually less dense than surrounding solid rock, it moves upward to cooler regions of the Earth. As the magma loses heat, it cools and crystallizes into an igneous rock. Magma can cool on the Earth's surface, where it has erupted from a volcano (extrusive rock) or under the Earth's surface, where it has intruded older rocks (intrusive rock).
The composition of magma is limited to the eight common elements of the earth's crust. These elements combine within a melt to form silicate minerals, the most common minerals of igneous rocks. These silicate minerals include feldspars (plagioclase feldspar, potassium feldspar), quartz, micas (muscovite, biotite), pyroxenes (augite), amphiboles (hornblende), and olivine. These minerals make up over 95% of the volume of the common igneous rocks, making igneous rocks easy to identifiy.
the teacher possesses a basic?
knowledge of important bichemical cycles