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46 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
how do ACE inhibitors work?
decreases afterload.
stops vasoconstriction.
what conditions are ACE inhibitors helpful for?
peripheral neuropathy.
how do identify ACE drug name?
ends in "-pril"
how to beta blockers work?
inhibits epinephrine & sympathetic actions.
relaxes heart and lungs.
what conditions are beta blockers helpful for?
after MI
chronic ischemic CAD
how are beta blockers named?
end with "-lol"
how do calcium channel blockers work?
decrease force of contraction.
cause vasodilation.
slow down conduction in heart.
contraindication for beta blockers?
contraindications for calcium channel blockers?
heart block
how do loop diuretics work?
inhibit Na+ reabsorption
how do thiazides work?
retain water by inhibit Na+/Cl- symporter.
how do digitalis work?
increase CO to increase urine output.
how do potassium-sparing diuretics work?
sparing potassium?
when are diuretics used?
for CHF and HTN.
what are contraindications for digitalis
how do sympathomimetics work?
act on beta 2 receptors to help with what do methylxanthines work?bronchodilation.
how do methylxanthines work?
bronchodilators effecitve for CPOD / asthma by increasing diaphragm's capacity to contract.
what does epinephrine HCL do?
increase cardiac inotrophy / chronotropy.

increased arterial tone and bronchodilation.
what does isoproterenol HCL do?
very potent inotropic/chronotropic activity.
how does albuterol do?
selective beta, one of the drugs of choice in acute bronchoona
What lab values are associated with diagnosis of AMI?
troponins and CK-MB
what lab values are associated with diagnosis of CHF?
BNP levels
what lab values are associated with changes in ECG?
electrolyte changes
what do troponins do?
cardiac regulatory proteins that control calcium mediated ineractio of actin and myosin.
in other words, control muscle contractions.
how does troponins respond after AMI?
the gold standard.
increases 2-6hr after AMI.
peaks within 10-24 hours.
back to normal in 10 days.`
creatine kinase
MM =
BB =
MB =
MM = skeletal muscle
BB = brain tissue
MB = cardiac tissue
CK-MB rises when how?
begins 4-6 hours after onset of infarction.
peaks 12-24hrs .
returns to baseline 36-48 hours.
what may be false positives for CK-MB?
cardiac surgery.
thrombolysis w/ tpa.
(hypothyroidism, renal failure, combined skeletal muscle and cardiac injury)
what do elevated troponins indicate?
moderate to severe PE w/ R heart overload.
heart failure.
trauma such as CPR, electrical conversion, AICD firing.)
where are BNP produced?
left ventricles especially, but both.
what does BNP do?
dilates arteries and veins.
released during pressure or volume overload, eg CHF, LV dysfunction, ventricular hypertrophy, CM.
what are normal values of sodium?
135-145 mEq/L
what does sodium do?
regulates blood volume and pressure.
what does low sodium indicate?
hypoatremia, which is excess body fluid and dilute sodium level.
what is hypoatremia sign of?
CHF, liver failure, renal failure, or pneumonia.
what is hypernatremia?
dehydrated, so less fluid, greater [Na2+].
what does hypernatremia cause/
lethargy, weakness, irritability and edema.
what are signs of hyponatremia
headache, vomit, nausea, confusion, fatigue, loss of appetite, restlessness and irritability, muscle weakness, spasms, or cramps, seizures.
what is normal hemoglobin and hematocrit ratio?
what are normal values of potassium?
3.5-5.1 mEq/L
what are potassium important for?
nerve transmission
what is hypokalemia?
<3.0 mEq/L
what are symptoms of hypokalemia
muscular weakness, myalgia, muscle cramps.
flattened or inverted T waves, a Uwave, ST depression, and a wide Pr interval. prolonged repolarization of ventricular purkinje fibers.
what can cause hypokalemia
diarrhea, excessive perspiration, losses associated with surgical procedures.
diuretics, including thiaaide diuretics and loop diuretics.
prolonged excess of caffeine.
what is hyperkalemia?
imparied K= urinary secretion due to kidney disease.
muscle weakness or paralysis.
cardiac arrythmias, sinus bradycardia, VT/VF asystole.
continue at page 295.
continue at pg 295.