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93 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Name the 2 divisions of the skull.
calvaria and facial skeleton
How many bones make up the skull? ossicles (middle ear)?
22
6 (3 each side)
What separates the outer and inner tables of compact bone?
spongy marrow
Which part of the skull is often more extensively fractured?
innter table of bone
Name the two types of ossifications of the skull.
intramembranous ossification

endochondral ossification-from cartilage precursor
The bones a newborn's calvaria are joined by what?
dense CT fibrous joints called sutures
The sites of fibrous sutureswhere several bones meet are called what?
fontanelles
When does the anterior fontanelle close? posterior?
18-24 mo
9 mo
What is th eposterior fontanelle the future site of?
lambda
Describe the characteristics of a newborn's skull.
small face, only unilamellar bone, no diploe (spongy marrow), glabella, supperciliary arches or mastoid processes, styloid process has not yet fused to the temporal bone
Name the two types of skull sutures and give an example of each.
serrate-type (jigsaw-like) ie. sagittal
squamous-type (flattened) ie. temporoparietal
What is craniosyostosis caused by?
premature closure of the sutures leading to deformities of the head which inhibit proper brain development
Which bone forms the forehead? How may centers of ossification does it have?
frontal
2
What suture in the frontal bone may persist beyond 6 years in 8% of individuals?
frontal or metopic suture
What is the super ciliary arch?
crests over orbits
Name the smooth area between the super ciliary arches.
glabella
What passes through the supraorbital foramen or notch?
supraorbital newve and artery
What passes through the anterior an dposterior ethmoid foramina?
anterior and posterior ethmoid nerve and vessels
What passes through the foramen cecum?
emissary vein
What is the name of the medial junction of frontal and nasal bones?
nasion
What is the name of the suture between the frontal and parietal bones?
coronal suture
Parietal bones articulate with the occipital bone at what suture?
lambdoid
What passes through the parietal foramen?
emissary (exiting) veings
Name the 6 parts of the temporal bones.
squamous, petrous, matoid, zygomatic process, tympanic, syloid process
Which part of the temporal bone is external to the temporal lobe of the brain?
squamous part
What is the part of the temporal bone located between the sphenoid and occipital bones?
petrous part
What does the petrous part of the temporal bone enclose?
internal ear
What part of the temporal bone surrounds the external acoustic meatus?
tympanic part
What part of the temporal bone is the site of attachment of muscles and ligaments?
styloid process
The temporal bone articulates with the parital bone at what suture?
squamosal
The mandible articulates with the temporal bone at what?
mandibular fossa or temporal mandibular joint (TMJ)
What passes through the stylomastoid foramen?
facial nerve and stylomastoid artery
What passes through the mastoid foramen?
emissary vein
What passes through the jugular foramen?
internal jugular vein/sigmoid sinus, posterior meningeal artery, and CN IX, X, XI
What passes through the internal acoustic meatus (foramen)?
facial nerve (VII), vestibulocochlear nerve (VIII), and the labyrinthine artery and vein
How many bones does the sphenoid bone articulate with? Name them.
8
frontal parietal (2), temporal (2), occipital, vomer, zygomatic (2), palatine (2) and ethmoid
Name the 3 parts of the sphenoid bone.
body, greater and lesser wings
What is the superior surface of the body of the sphenoid bone called?
sella turcica
What does the sella turcica form?
hypophyseal fossa for the pituitary gland
What does the lesser wing of the sphenoid bone form?
posterior edge of anterior cranial fossa
What does the greater wing of the sphenoid bone form?
floor of anterior edge of middle cranial fossa
What passes through the pterygoid canal?
NAV
What passes through the sphenopalatine foramen?
nasal and nasopalatine N and sphenopalatine vessels
What passes through the foramen ovale?
mandibular N (V3), and lesser superficial petrosal (parasympathetic portion of CN IX) nerve, (accessory meningeal artery
What passes through the foramen lacerum?
internal carotid artery, carotid sympathetic and venous plexus, greater petrosal nerve (parasympathetic branch of CN VII)
What passes through the optic foramen?
optic nerve (II) and ophthalmic artery
What is located between the greater and lesser wings of the sphenoid bone?
superior orbital fissure
What passes through the superior orbital fissure?
oculomotor N (III), trochlear N (IV), frontal and lacrimal N (off V1), abducent nerve (VI) and superior ophthalmic vein
What passes through the inferior orbital fissue?
maxillary and zygomatic nerves (V2) and infraorbital vessels
What is the large opening that passes through the occipital bone called? What does it allow for?
foramen magnum
brain and spinal column communication
What is the thick part of the occipital bone called? Whar area of the occipital bone is thin?
external occipital protuberance
base of the skull is thinner
What do the occipital condyles articulate with?
atlas
What passes through the foramen magnum?
medulla oblongata, spinal roots of spinal accessory nerve (XI), two vertebral arteries, one anterior and two posterior spinal arteries, plus meninges
What passes through the hypoglossal canal?
hypoglossal nerve (XII)
Which bones are often called the cheek bones?
zygomatic bones
What do th zygomatic bones help form?
the lateral wall of the orbit and zygomatic arch with the temporal bones
What is the upper jaw bone called?
maxillary bones
The 2 maxillary bones articulate with each other at what?
intermaxillary suture
Name the 5 parts of the maxillary bones.
body, zygomatic, frontal, palatine, and alveolar processes
Which part of the maxillary bone wurrounds the maxillary sinus?
body
Which maxillary process houses the upper teeth?
alveolar process
What do the maxillary bones articulate with?
vomer, lacrimal, sphenoid, palatine and inferior nasal conchae
What passes through the infraorbital foramen?
infraorbital NAV
What passes through the incisive foramen?
palatine vessels and nasopalatine nerve
What passes through the greater palatine canal?
greater palatine nerve and palatine vessels
What two things do the palatine vessels pass through?
incisive foramen and greater palatine canal
What do the palatine bones form?
back of hard palate
Name the two plate that make up the palatine bones.
horizontal and perpendicular plate
What does the horizontal plate of the palatine bone form?
palate
What does the perpendicular plate of the palatine bone form?
nasal cavity
What does the ethmoid bone help form?
anterior cranial cavity, medial wall of the orbit, and nasal cavity (superior and middle conchae)
What do the crista galli extension of the ethmoid bone attach to?
falx cerebri
What passes through the cribriform plate?
olfactory nerves (I), anterior and posterior ethmoid NAV
What are the paired bones int he nasal cavity called?
inferior concha
Which concha are part of the ethmoid bone?
superior and middle
Which paired bones lie inferior tot he bridge of the nose?
nasal bones
What do the paired lacrimal bones help form and surround?
form medial wall of the orbit and partially surround the nasolacrimal duct
Which bone forms the posterioinferior part of the nasal septum?
vomer (not paired)
Which bone forms the lower jaw?
mandible (not paired)
What type of ossification forms the mandible?
intramembranous from 2 sites and the lower portion of Meckel's cartilage
When does fusion of the mandible occur?
age 1-2
Name the parts of the mandible.
condylar process, mandibular notch, cornoid, and angle of the mandible
What are the two parts of the condylar process of the mandible?
head and neck
What does the head of the condylar process of the mandible articulate with?
temporal fossa
Is the coronoid anterior or posterior? condylar process?
coronoid-anterior
condylar-posterior
What is the small bone projection of the mandible that serves as the site of attachment for a ligament? Name the ligament.
lingula of the mandible
sphenomandibular ligament
What ist he internal surface of the mandible divided by?
mylohyoid line
Where does the mylohyoid line end?
just below mental spine or genial tubercle
What passes through the mental foramen?
mental N&A
What passes throught he mandibular foramen and canal?
inferior alveolar nerve and vessels
What occurs with a Le Fort I fracture? When is this induced?
separates maxillary teth from rest of the face
with orthodontics
What occurs with a Le Fort II fracture?
separates upper (maxillary) teeth and nose fromt he rest of the face
What occurs with a Le Fort III fracture?
Fracture through the upper portion of the orbits, separating the face from the rest of the skull (maxillary teeth, nose, zygomatic bone and lower portion of orbits)