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48 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
The sum of all chemical reactions that occur within a living organism.
Synthesis of chemical compounds (combine simpler substances into more complex molecules.) Requires energy (endergonic) e.g. Protein from amino acid.
Break down of complex compounds into simpler ones. Releases energy. (exergonic)
Most metabolism requires energy.

Biological catalyst (speeds up reactions) (unaltered by reaction) A specialized protein that speeds up a reaction without being altered by the reaction.
Biological ___________

A specialized protein that speeds up a reaction without being altered by the reaction.
Enzymes lower the "Activation energy"
What is the mechanism for enzyme action?
"Activation energy"
the amount of energy to get it going.
Active site
Gives the enzyme it specificity. Where it binds to the substrate.
Active site binds with the _________ to form an enzyme-substrate complex.
Some _______ are protein only, others have a protein and a nonprotein portion.
The protein portion of the enzyme is called ____________.
What is the nonprotein portion of the enzyme called?
What is the organic cofactor portion of the enzyme called?
Apoenzymes + Cofactor = ____________.
"lock and key" fit
Enzymes only react w/ a specific substrate.
__________ is due to surface configuration/conformation (shape) of the protein.
Primary, Secondary, Tertiary and Quaternary structure
What is the conformation (shape) the result of in enzyme structure?
Weak interactions

(hydrogen bonds, ionic bonds, and hydrophobic interactions.)
What holds the enzymes together?
Hydrogen bonding
Ionic bonds
Hydrophobic interactions
What are the names of the weak interactions in enzymes?
Hydrogen bonding
holds pleated sheet together.
Ionic bonds
+ and -

opposite charges attract during this bond.
Hydrophobic interactions
Water hating interactions

nonpolar R groups.
Covalent linkage
Disulfide bridges btwn two cysteine monomers.
Disulfide bonds
In addition to conformation specificity involves ionic character.
ionic character.
In addition to conformation specificity involves _____ __________.
_________ bridges btwn two cysteine monomers.
Denaturing of enzymes by temp or pH
Substrate concentration
Competitive inhibition
Noncompetitive inhibition
Feedback inhibition
What are the factors influencing enzyme activity?
Substrate concentration
AkA saturation
There is a max rate at which a certain amount of enzyme can catalyzed a specific reaction.

as an increase in substrate, it plateus.
Competitive inhibition
competition btwn inhibitor and true substrate for they bind at the active site, and the enzyme can no longer bind correctly or not at all.
Noncompetitive inhibition
they bind to the allosteric sites on the enzyme.

e.g. poisons.
Feedback inhibition
This control mechanism stops the cell from wasting chemical resources by making more of a substance than it needs.
Noncompetitive inhibitors
do not compete with the substrate for the enzymes active site; instead, they interact with another part of the enzyme called the allosteric site.

This causes the active site to change its shape and become nonfunctional.
Exoenzyme/Extracellular enzymes
Function outside the cell. (enzyme)
Endoenzymes/Intracellular enzymes
Enzyme that functions inside the cell.
The capacity to do work.
What are the two states of energy?
Kinetic energy
The energy of motion.
Potential energy
Energy which is stored (inactive).
1st law of thermodynamics
Energy is conserved

Energy cannot be created or destroyed, but can be transformed: changed from one form to another.
2nd law of thermodynamics
In any change of energy from one form to another entropy (disorder) increases. Some of the energy becomes unavailable to do work.
a measure of the degreee of disorder or randomness of a system.
To maintain life (a complex ordered system) cells need a constant source of _______.
Oxidation and Reduction reactions
Electrons are transferred from one atom to another.

Atoms that lose electrons are "________"

Atoms that gain electrons are "_________".
In the oxidation-reduction reaction, in biological systems, the electrons are often associated with ___________ atoms.
Biological oxidations
_________ __________ are often dehydrogenations.
In oxidation-reduction, organisms concentrate (stored energy)energy in the high energy bonds of _____.