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115 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What are the organs of the male repro system?
1. Sex glands - testes
2. Duct system
3. Accessory sex glands
4. Copulatory organ (penis)
How many seminal vesicles are there?
How many prostates?
What is the dense fibrous CT capsule around the testes?
Tunica albuginea
What is the highly vascular loose CT located on the inner surface of the Tunica albuginea?
Tunica vasculosa
What is the posterior thickening of the tunica albuginea?
Mediastinum testis
What lies within the mediastinum testis?
-Passages for sperm transport
-Blood vessels
-Lymphatic vessels
What are the Septa?
CT extensions of the tunica albuginea that subdivide the testes into lobules
What does each lobule contain?
3-4 seminiferous tubules and a CT stroma
What are the Seminiferous tubules?
A germinal epithelium
What are the seminiferous tubules lined with?
A stratified epithelium
What are the 2 primary cell types in the stratified epithelium of the seminiferous tubules?
-Germinal cells
-Sertoli cells
What are the cells closest to the basal lamina? What are they undergoing?
Spermatogonium - undergoing mitosis
What is the progression of maturation of spermatogonium? What direction do they go?
-1' spermatocyte
-2' spermatocyte
They go toward the center of the cross section, away from the basal surface.
So what are the Germinal cells in various phases of?
When is spermatogenesis turned on in males?
At puberty
How many phases are there to spermatogenesis?
What are the 3 main phases of spermatogenesis?
1. Spermatocytogenesis
2. Meiosis
3. Spermiogenesis
What happens during and is achieved by spermatocytogenesis?
-Mitosis of spermatogonia
-Maintains a stem cell population that is committed to meiosis
What happens during Meiosis?
2 divisions occur that convert Primary Spermatocytes to Spermatids
What happens during Spermiogenesis?
Round spermatids become Mature Sperm
What are the 4 steps in Spermiogenesis?
1. Golgi phase
2. Cap phase
3. Acrosome phase
4. Maturation phase
What is Spermiation?
The process of sperm release into the lumen of the tubule.
What are the 2 main morphologic features of the sperm?
What is the Seminiferous Epithelium Cycle?
The 6 distinctly observable associations of germinal cells that are cycled through consecutively.
What is the pattern of change as the seminiferous epithelium proceeds through the cycle?
Wave-like in a spiral arrangement.
What are the 'worker bees' in the seminiferous epithelium?
The sertoli cells
Where in the arrangement of a cross section of germinal epithelium are sertoli cells?
They span the full thickness of it.
Do sertoli cells divide?
What is a prominent feature of sertoli cells?
They have a well developed cytoskeleton
What are Charcot-Bottcher inclusions?
Unique crystalline inclusions in sertoli cells.
What are 4 secretory products of Sertoli cells?
Why do Sertoli cells need an extensive cytoskeleton?
Because they form the Blood-Testis barrier by being linked via Tight junctions
At what side of the sertoli cells are they linked?
Why is a Blood-Testis barrier needed?
To maintain a different composition in luminal fluid than ISF.
What is the major thing that is prevented by the Blood-Testis barrier?
Development of autoantibodies to sperm
When does the Blood-testis barrier form?
At or before puberty
What lies under the germinal epithelium at the basal side?
A basement membrane
What is just external to the basement membrane?
A Tunica Propria
What makes up the 3-5 deep layer of cells in the initial tunica propria?
Myoid cells containing fibrous CT
What is the tissue beyond the myoid cells called?
Interstitial tissue
What are the most important interstitial cells?
Leydig cells
How much of the testicular volume consists of testicular volume?
What do the Leydig cells secrete?
What supports the maturation of Sertoli and Leydig cells?
What do Sertoli cells release other than MIF and ABP?
What does inhibin do?
Inhibits the release of FSH from the pituitary
What does LSH do?
Stimulates interstitial cell synthesis and release of Testosterone
What are the actions of Testosterone?
-Maintains spermatogenesis, male ducts, sex glands, 2ndary sex..
-Stimulates protein synthesis
-Regulates testicular bloodflow
Does the male duct system ever end?
No it is continuous from beginning to end.
Can sperm swim through the duct system?
No they are immobile in the passages
What are the 2 components of the intratesticular ducts?
-Straight tubules
-Rete testis
What does the epithelium of the Straight tubules consist of?
Only Sertoli cells
Where exactly is the Rete testis located within?
The mediastinum testis (thickening at the back)
What type of epithelium makes up the Rete testis?
Simple cuboidal to low columnar
What is in the trabeculae that bound the spaces of the Rete testis?
Smooth muscle cells
What are the 4 'steps' in the Extratesticular ducts?
1. Efferent ductules
2. Ductus Epidymis
3. Vas/Ductus deferens
4. Urethra
How many efferent ductules are there?
About 20
What type of epithelium lines the Efferent ductules?
Pseudostratified epithelium
What do some of the pseudostratified epithelial cells have?
What do the nonciliated cells in the Efferent tubule do?
Reabsorb tubular fluid
What are the Ductus Epididymis lined with?
Pseudostratified columnar epithelium
What do the tall cells in the Ductus Epididymis have?
How does the lumen of the Efferent ductule compare to that of the Ductus Epididymis?
ED = scalloped border
DE = smooth/even
What happens to to sperm as they pass through the ductus epididymis?
Their membranes get glycosylated to provide stability
What layer of the ductus epididymis becomes prominent in the tail of it?
A 3-layered muscularis
What happens at the tail?
Sperm are stored there. (Remember, sperm are stored in the epididymis)
What are the ductus deferens lined with?
Pseudostratified columnar epithelium
What surface feature is on the columnar cells in the Ductus deferens?
Long Microvilli
What are the 3 layers of the muscularis in the Ductus Deferens?
-Inner longitudinal
-Middle circular
-Outer longitudinal
What changes occur to the mucosa as the Ductus deferens becomes Ampulla?
The tall cells become Simple Columnar and contain secretory granules
What are the 2 main features of the Ejaculatory duct?
-Simple columnar epithelium
-No smooth muscle
What are the 3 sections of Urethra?
What lines the Prostatic urethra?
Transitional epithelium
What lines the Membranous urethra?
Stratified-Pseudostratified Columnar Epithelium
What lines the Penile urethra?
Pseudostratified columnar epithelium
What is the Navicular fossa lined with?
stratified SQUAMOUS epithelium
What are Urethral glands of Littre?
Glands that secrete mucus into the lumen of the urethra
What are the 3 accessory glands of the male repro system?
-Seminal vesicle
-Prostate gland
-Bulbourethral gland
What is the mucosa of the Seminal vesicle lined with?
Pseudostratified columnar epithelium
What does the cross-section of a seminal vesicle show?
That its mucosa is highly folded
What are the products of the seminal vesicle?
-Prostaglandin E
-Ascorbic acid
What can Scurvy cause in men?
What does the Prostate gland consist of?
30-50 Tubuloalveolar glands
What is abundant in the Prostatic stroma?
Smooth muscle
Is the prostate gland uniform throughout?
No, it has clinically and anatomically distinct zones!
What are the 4 distinct zones of the prostate?
1. Periurethral
2. Transitional
3. Central
4. Peripheral
What is the duct that enters the central zone of the prostate?
The ejaculatory duct
What does the prostate add to seminal fluid?
What are Prostatic concretions?
Crystalized precipitate of the prostate secretions that become increased in elderly men
What are 2 clinically significant conditions that affect the prostate gland?
-Nodular hyperplasia
-Prostate carcinoma
What is Nodular hyperplasia also called?
BPH - benign prostatic hyperplasia
What zones are affected in BPH?
What zone is affected in Prostate carcinoma?
Peripheral zone
What do the secretions of Cowper's / Bulbourethral gland add to seminal fluid?
Mucus that makes it viscous and slippery
How much volume is in the average ejaculate?
2-5 ml
How many sperm are in the average ejaculate?
40-400 million
What is Preseminal fluid?
-Bulbourethral secretions
-Urethral gland secretions
What is the major contribution to the volume of semen?
Seminal vesicle secretions
What does the Penis consist of?
-3 erectile bodies
-Tunica albuginea surrounding
What are the 2 muscles on the dorsal penis?
Corpora cavernosa
What is the muscle that surrounds the penile urethra?
Corpus spongiosum
What is the erectile tissue in the penis?
The corpus cavernosa which become engorged with blood.
What is located in the center of each corpus cavernosum?
A central artery
What are the branches of the central artery that supply the vascular spaces and dilate to cause erection?
Helicine arteries
What innervation causes the helicine arteries to dilate?
What is the erection mechanism?
A neurovascular response involving spinal cord reflexes and higher CNS input
How does the smooth muscle in the vascular spaces of the corpus cavernosa change as the helicine arteries dilate via PNS stimulation?
They relax to allow more space for blood
What are the 2 mediators of that smooth muscle relaxation?
How does NO cause relaxation?
By elevating cGMP levels
What is full rigidity of the penis called?
What innervation causes ejaculation?
What mediates Detumesence/flaccidity?
Phosphodiesterase 5 depletion of cGMP
What is the effect of PDE5?
Smooth muscle contraction
What relieves erectile dysfunction?
PDE5 inhibitors