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67 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What are the muscles of facial expression innervated by? Name this nerves branches?
CN VII (facial)
temporal zygomatic, buccal, mandibular, and cervical
All the muscles of facial expression are derived from what?
second branchial arch
Name the 5 muscles of the mouth.
orbicularis oris, depressor anguli oris, zygomaticus major, levator labii superioris, depressor labii inferioris
Which muscle of the mouth is important for articulation and mastication?
orbicularis oris
Which muscle of the mouth raises the corner of the mouth (smile)?
zygomaticus major
Name the muscle of the cheek. What is it important for?
keeping food on the molars
Which muscle of the eyelid helps empty the lacrimal sac?
orbicularis oculi
Which muscle is important for closing the eyelid to protect the cornea?
orbicularis oculi
What CN innervates the orbicularis oculi?
Which muscle raises the eyelids?
levator palpebrae superioris
Which CN innervates the levator palpebrae superioris?
The upper eyelid is raised by CN ____ and the lower and upper eyelids are closed by CN ____.
Which muscle raises the eyebrows?
What is the action of the procerus?
wrinkles bridge of nose and helps open nostrils
Name the two portions of the nasalis.
compressor narism and dilator naris m
What is the function of the nasalis?
close and open the nasal apertures
Sensory innervation of the face is provided by what CN? Name the three divisions.
trigeminal (V)
opthalmic, maxillary, mandibular
Name the divisions of the trigeminal opthalmic.
nasociliary, frontal, and lacrimal
Name the divisions of the trigeminal maxillary.
infraorbital, zygomaticofacial, zygomaticoteporal
Name the divisions of the trigeminal mandibular.
mental, buccal, and auriculotemporal
Name the branches of the nasocilliary nerve.
external nasal and infratrochlear nerves
Name the branches of the frontal nerve.
supratrochlear and supraorbital
What is Bell's palsy? What can be isolated 80% of the time?
paralysis of facial muscles, normally unilateral
Herpes simplex virus
Deep facial lacerations may cut branches of which nerve?
facial nerve
What generally occurs if the laceration to the face is medial to the lateral canthus of the eye?
the cut branches of the facial nerve will re-innervate their target muscles and function will be restored over time
What generally is done is the laceration to the face is lateral to the lateral canthus of the eye?
the cut ends of the facial nerve are located and specifically reattached in order to increase the likelihood of re-innervation of the muscle of facial expression
Blood that supplies the face comes from what arteries?
internal and external carotid arteries
What are the branches of the external carotid artery?
facial (or external maxillary), superficial temporal, and transverse facial
What are the branches of the internal carotid artery?
supratrochlear, supraorbital, dorsal nasal
Name the chief artery off the external carotid. What branches does it give off?
inferior and superior labial artery
The facial artery runs superficial to the ___ and ____ but deep to the ____ and ____.
superficial-buccinator and masseter m
deep-zygomaticus major and levator labii superioris m
What is the terminal branch of the external carotid?
superficial temporal artery
Name the two branches of the superficial temporal artery.
frontal and parietal baranches of superficial temporal arteries
Which branch of the external carotid artery is used by anesthesiologies to measure pulse?
superficial temporal artery
What is the path of the transverse facial artery?
crosses external to the masseter m to area around inferior/lateral eye
What does the supratrochlear artery supply?
area above the nose
What does the supraorbital artery supply?
area above the eye
What does the dorsal nasal artery supply?
bridge of nose
Which vein provides the major venous drainage of the face?
facial vein
Where does the facial vein start? What does it drain to?
starts at inner canthus of the eye, drains into the internal jugular vein
The facial vein has anastomotic connections with the _____ via the _____ and _____.
cavernous sinus
superior ophthalmic vein
pterygoid plexus
Which vein drains the temporal and face? What does it empty into?
superficial temporal vein
retromandibular vein
What forms the retromandibular vein?
junction of superficial temporal and maxillary veins
The retromandibular vein divides to form what?
the external jugular vein w/ the posterior auricular
The retromandibular vein gives off a branch of the facial vein which drains into what?
internal jugular vein
Where does blood from the inner canthus of eye and nose usually drain? What is the significance of the 'danger zone'?
facial vein
has no valves and there are anastomotic connections to the cavernous sinus via the superior and inferior ophthalmic veins, bacteria from a pimple can end up dangerously close to the brain
Name the five layers of the scalp from superficial to deep.
skin, CT, aponeurosis, loose CT, periostium
Which layer of the scalp is highly vascular?
Describe the aponeurosis of the scalp.
dense CT
Which layer of the scalp does the aponeurosis glide?
loose CT
Which layer of the scalp is dense CT attached to the bone with Sharpey's fibers?
Which layers of the scalp act as the 'functional scalp'.
the outer 3 layers = skin, CT, aponeurosis
The dense CT aponeurosis is continuous with the dense CT surrounding what?
the occipitalis m posteriorly and the frontalis m anteriorly
What are the occipitalis m and frontalis m derived from? Which CN innervates them?
second branchial arch
What does the occipitalis m originate from?
superior nuchal line
What is the bony attachment of the frontalis m?
it has no bony attachments
What is the epicranial aponeurosis limited by anteriorly? posteriorly? laterally?
a-eyelids and root of the nose
p=superior nuchal line
l-zygomatic arch and temporalis muscle fascia
Which layer of the scalp is called the 'danger zone'.
loose CT
Lacerations through the ____ tend to gap widely due to pulling of the frontalis and occipitalis muscles.
epicranial aponeurosis
Why don't arteries of the scalp contract after a laceration?
the aponeurosis is tough
Sensory innervation of the scalp is by what?
CNV and cervical plexus (C2,3)
Arteries of the scalp run within what?
CT of 'true scalp' (second layer)
Name the branches of the external carotid artery that supply the scalp.
occipital, posterior auricular, superficial temporal
Name the branches of the internal carotid artery that supply the scalp.
supratrochlear and supraorbital
Name 4 veins of the scalp.
supraorbital, supratrochlear, superficial temporal, posterior auricular
What is pulled away during scalping?
hair, skin, CT and epicranial aponeurosis
loose CT usually gives way and leave skull exposed
Describe what makes a surgical flap successful. Give an example.
better if they contain arteries, veins and nerves
the central region of the forehead that contains the supratrochlear NAV works very well for re-covering the nose