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30 Cards in this Set

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gametes
In sexual reproduction, each parent produces cells, each of which contain a copy of 1/2 of his or her genetic material.
spermatozoa (sperm)
What is the name for male gametes?
ova (ovum)(egg)
What is the name for female gametes?
1/2
Gametes have ____ the number of chromosomes that most cells have.
Diploid
they contain 2 sets of 23 chromosomes (2n)

most of the cells are described as this
Haploid
this is what gametes are

contains a single set of 23 chromosomes (n).
fertilization
As a result of mating, gametes from each parent may fuse together to produce a new cell, a phenomenon known as ____________.
zygote
This new cell, known as a _______, has the potential to develop into a completely new individual and is DIPLOID, having received half of it chromosomes from one parent and the other half from the other parent.
gametogenesis
Gametes are generated from a pool of specialized, relatively undifferentiated precursor cells known as germ cells in a process called ___________.
gametogenesis
A process in which the diploid germ cell undergo a series of cell divisions that ultimately reduces the number of chromosomes in each cell by half (2n -n).
23
22
1
A single sperm or ovum contains __ chromosomes, __ autosomes, and ___ sex chromosome.
Sex chromosomes
Y
X
___ _________ are the chromosomes that determine an individual's sex and are of two types - the _ or male chromosome and the _ or female chromosome.
Autosomes
________ are the chromosomes other than the sex chromosomes.
homologous
As a reflection of this, the members of each pair of autosomes are said to be _________.
genes
alleles
The ______ in each pair, though similar in many important respects, are not necessarily identical because genes generally come in a variety of differ versions or _______.
mitosis
A process in which a set of diploid cells produce a colony or clone of daughter cells, each possessing an exact copy of all 46 of the individual chromosomes.
meiosis
a series of 2 cell divisions following only a single replication of DNA, thereby generating daughter cells with half the normal chromosome number. These will eventually become mature sperm or ova.
1
1
22
In meiosis, an individual's chromosomes are soted and packaged in such a way that each of the final daughter cells receives ___ sex chromosome plus ___ chromosome from each of the ___ pairs of autosomes.
gonads
The ______ are considered the primary reproductive organs because they perform 2 functions that ultimately govern all reproductive activity: They produce ________, and they secrete sex hormones, a variety of steroids that promote gametogenesis, growth and maintanence of reproductive organs, development of secondary sex characteristics, and etc.
androgens
The testes secrete a class of sex hormones called _________.
estrogens
progesterone
The ovaries secrete __________ and ____________.
adrenal cortex
Sex hormones are not only secreted by the gonads, but also by the _______ _______.
women
In _______ the adrenal cortex is the primary source of androgens, which are responsible for promoting the sex drive in either sex.
sperm
The sex of the offspring is determined entirely by the genetic makeup of the ______, not the egg.
genes
Although a person's sex is normally determined by the _____ he or she inherits, the _____ themselves do NOT confer the full complement of male or female traits; they determine whether a fetus will develop ovaries or testis.
sex determination
The role of genes in deciding a person's sex is referred to as ___ __________.
srY gene
If there is a Y chromosome present, the ____ gene instructs the primative gonads to become testis; when the embryo inherits 2 X chromosomes the ____ gene is absent, so the primative gonads develop into ovaries.
Wolffian ducts (mesonephric ducts)
Mullerian ducts (paramesonophric ducts)
In the first few weeks of development, the embryo is said to be sexually indifferent and possesses rudimentary female and male reproductive systems, called __________ _____ and __________ _____.
testosterone
mullerian inhibiting substance (MIS)
Whether these characteristics are male or female depends on the presence or absence of 2 hormones normally secreted by the testes - ___________ and _________ _________ ________.
testosterone
MIS
_________ acts on the Wolffian ducts to promote the development of male reproductive organs, whereas ___ promotes the regression and eventual disappearance of the Mulleriam ducts, thereby preventing the development of female organs.