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43 Cards in this Set

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Abnormally low amount of red blood cells or hemoglobin, due to a lack of iron in the diet. 18, 210
iron deficiency anemia
One of two or more atoms with the same atomic number that differs in the number of neutrons and, therefore, in weight. 18
isotope
Group of organic compounds that are insoluble in water---notable, fats, oils, and steroids. 24
lipid
Simple sugar;a carbohydrate that cannot be decomposed by hydrolysis. 23
monosaccharide
Large organic molecule found in the nucleus (DNA and RNA) and cytoplasm (RNA). 29
nucleic acid
Bond that joins two amino acids. 27
peptide bond
Measure of the hydrogen ion concentration;any pH below 7 is acidic, and any pH above 7 is basic. 22
pH
Carbohydrate composed of many bonded glucose units---for example, glycogen. 23
polysaccharide
Macromolecule composed of amino acids. 25
protein
Atom whose nucleus undergoes degeneration and in the process gives off radiation. 18
radioactive isotope
Nucleic acid that helps DNA in protein systhesis. 29
ribonucleic acid(RNA)
Lipid-solution, biologically active molecules having four interlocking rings;examples are cholesterol, progesterone, and testosterone. 25
steroid
To build up, such as the combining together of two small molecules to form a larger molecule. 27
synthesis
Solution in which pH is less than 7;substance that contributes or liberates hydrogen ions in a solution;opposite of base
acid
Unit of protein that takes its name from the fact that it contains an amino group (---NH2(subscript 2) and an acid group (---COOH).(p 27)
amino acid
Molecule used by cells when energy is needed. (p 29)
adenosine triphosphate (ATP)
Solution in which pH is more than 7;a substance that contributes or liberates hydroxide ions in a solution;alkaline;opposite of acid. 21
base
Substance or compound that prevents large changes in the pH of a solution. 22, 331
buffer
Organic compounds with the general formula (CH2O)n[subscript 2 & n], including sugars and glycogen. 23
carbohydrates
Chemical substance having two or more different elements in fixed ratio. 18
compound
Chemical change resulting in the covalent bonding of two monomers with the accompanying loss of a water molecule. 23
condensation
Chemical bond created by the sharing of electrons between atoms. 18
covalent bond
Excessive accumulation of acids in body fluids. 22,198
acidosis
Excessive accumulation of bases in body fluids. 22
alkalosis
Nucleic acid;the genetic material found in the nucleus of a cell. 29
deoxyribonucleic acid(DNA)
Condition characterized by an abnormally large production of urine, due to a deficiency of antidiuretic hormone. 23, 190
diabetes insipidus
Condition characterized by a high blood glucose level and the appearance of glucose in the urine, due to a deficiency of insulin. 23, 197
diabetes mellitus
Sugar that contains two units of a monosaccharide;for example, maltose. 23
disaccharide
Any substance that ionizes and conducts electricity;electrolytes are present in the body fluids and tissues. 21, 331
electrolyte
The simplest of substances, consisting of only one type of aton (for example, carbon, hydrogen, oxygen). 17
element
Protein catalyst that speeds up a specific reaction or a specific type of reaction. 25
enzyme
Inability to remove cholesterol from the bloodstream;predisposes individual to heart attack. 25
familial hypercholesterolemia
Organic molecule that the body uses for long-term energy storage. 24, 64
fat
Molecule that contains a hydrocarbon chain and ends with an acid group. 24
fatty acid
Blood sugar that is broken down in cells to acquire energy for ATP production. 23
glucose
Three-carbon molecule that joins with fatty acids to form fat. 24
glycerol
Polysaccharide that is the principal storage compound for sugar in animals. 23
glycogen
Weak attraction between a partially positive hydrogen and a partially negative oxygen or nitrogen some distance away;found in proteins and nucleic acids. 21
hydrogen bond
Splitting of a bond by the addition of water. 23
hydrolysis
Elevated blood pressure, particularly the diastolic pressure. 18, 246
hypertension
A charged atom. 18
ion
Chemical attraction between a positive ion and a negative ion. 18
ionic bond
Breaking of a chemical bond such that ions are released. 21
ionize