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32 Cards in this Set

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What is the Milieu Interior?
Body's Internal Environment - cells suspended in it; the ECF that has ions/nutrients for sustaining cellular life.
2 Things necess to maintain cell life:
1. Functional CV system - exchange
2. Homeostasis - constancy
Oxygen:
-Normal value
-Normal range
-Short-term nonlethal limit
40
35-45
10-1000
Carbon Dioxide:
-Normal value
-Normal range
-Short-term nonlethal limit
40
35-45
5-80
Sodium
-Normal value
-Normal range
-Short-term nonlethal limit
142
138-146
115-175
Potassium
-Normal value
-Normal range
-Short-term nonlethal limit
4.2
3.8-5.0
1.5-9.0
Calcium
-Normal value
-Normal range
-Short-term nonlethal limit
1.2
1.0-1.4
0.5-2.0
Chloride
-Normal value
-Normal range
-Short-term nonlethal limit
108
103-112
70-130
Bicarb
-Normal value
-Normal range
-Short-term nonlethal limit
28
24-32
8-45
Glucose
-Normal value
-Normal range
-Short-term nonlethal limit
85
75-95
20-1500
Body temp
-Normal value
-Normal range
-Short-term nonlethal limit
98.4
98-98.8
65-110
pH
-Normal value
-Normal range
-Short-term nonlethal limit
7.4
7.3-7.5
6.9-8.0
How ECF gets from CV into tissues:
Simple diffusion
How milieu stays regulated:
Feedback systems
Gain
-Evaluates a feedback system
G = C/E
What happens to the heart if you bleed 1 liter? 2 liters? Why?
1 liter - body responds w/ neg feedback and returns pumping rate to normal.
2 L - body responds with pos feedback and heart stops.
When is pos feedback good?
Parturition
What is the gain of MAP control in the body?
4
What controller in the body has infinite feedback?
Renal control of arterial pressure
Concentration
mass x volume
Mass/time
Flow x Conc
How to measure volume:
-Inject known mass of indicator
-Measure its concentration
-Volume = mass/conc
How do you measure lung volume?
With a spirometer
How a Spirometer works:
-Know conc. of Helium
-Know volume of Helium tank
-Connect patient to helium tank
-Allow equilibration
-Msr new conc of He in tank
C1V1=C2V2
How do you measure Cardiac Output?
With Fick's method: O2 into the lungs = O2 out of the lungs
What is included in measuring CO based on blood oxygen content?
A= O2 cont. in veinous blood x Q
B= O2 Uptake rate at lungs-O2 C= O2 cont. in arterl blood xQ
A + B = C
Ohm's law for blood flow
P = F/R
Resistance is highest in what vessels:
Arterioles
If creatinine content in blood doubles what happened to excretion?
It halved
How do you increase resistance in a vessel?
-By increasing length
-By decreasing diameter
What is more compliant; veins or the aorta?
Veins - as volume increases their diameter increases much more than pressure
What happens when vol fills up the aorta?
Pressure becomes very high because compliance is low; allows blood pumping into periphery.