Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

42 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
what is a polymer?
along molecule consisting of many identical or similar monomers
repeating units that serve as the building blocks of a polmer.small
how are monomers connected?
condensation/dehydration reaction
what the hell is dehydration/condensation reaction?
dehydration is when two molecules are covalently bonded through the loss of a water molecule.
how can monomers be dissassembled?
thru hydrolsis which breaks the bond with the water molecule
what is the most simple carb? tell me more abt it
The simplest carb is the monosaccharide which varies in size.Their carbon skeletons can be anything from 4-7 carbons. Their molecular formula is usually some variation of CH20 i.e. the formula for glucose
what is a disaccharide
two monomers joined by condensation or dehydration. This is when two molecules are bonded thru the loss of a water molecule
A polymer of up to over a thousand monosaccharides, formed by condensation synthesis.
Glucose is major nutrient and is key to cellular respiration. what else is important about it?
he carbon skeleton of this sugar can also be used to build many other organic molecules, including amino acids and fatty acids. also every carbon except one has a hydroxyl gorup which is double bonded to an oxygen to form a carbonyl gorup and depending on its location it will be an aldose or ketose sugar
how are sugars identified
1) the size of their carbon skeleton
2)unique arrangement of their parts around asymmetric carbons.
what is an example of storage molecule that has stored sugar that can be found in plastids, cellular structures of plants
which polysaccharide is stored by animals? tell me and then give me more info
glycogen iis stored by animals. Most animals store it in their liver and muscle. it's the plant equivalent of starch. hydrolysis releases glucose
what is cellulose
cellulose is a storage polysaccharide that it used for plant cell walls. It is the most abundant organic compound.
what does starch and cellulose lok like?
starch is helical while cellulose is str8.
what is chitin
it's a polysaccharide that arthopods use to build their outer skeleton. fungi use it rather than cellulose to build their cell walls
what are hydrophobic due tot heir molecular structure. hint: not polymers
lipids! their not soluble in water!One of a family of compounds, including fats, phospholipids, and steroids!
whaht is made from glycerol?
fat is!
how is evil fat or triaglycerol made?
3 fatty acids each hook up to a glycerol by an ester linkage
saturated fat
s=solid! evil fat! i.e. butter.It refers to the hydrocarbon tails of the fatty acids.It has a great potential energy.
unsaturated fat!
safer than unsaturated fat. It's usually liquid at room temperature unlike the hard at room tempt saturated fat. double bonds keep it from getting close enuf to solidify at room temp.
fats are good for...?
energy storage!it makes it easier for animals who have to carry their energy stores.
adipose what?
store long term food. and they cushion vital organs and insulate the body.
there are only 2 fatty acids. It's arranged in a double layer, or bilayer, with the polar (hydrophilic) heads immersed in water and the nonpolar (hydrophobic) hydrocarbon tails in the inside of the membrane, hidden from water. It functionsn as a selective barrier
which lipids are characterized by a carbon skeleton with 4 fused rings?
steroids ie. cholesterol
how are amino acids built?
they have in their center an asymmetric carbon. Then a carboxyl, a hydrogen atom and a variable group symbolized by R
peptide bond.polypeptide
The covalent bond between two amino acidd , formed by condensation synthesis. polypeptide
(POL-ee-PEP-tide) A polymer (chain) of many amino acids linked together by peptide bonds.
primary structure
each protein has an exact pattern of amino acids.Twenty different amino acids are used to build proteins.The main backbone of every amino acid is the same. This is what forms the backbone of the polypeptide chain. It is the R-group, or side chain that makes each of the twenty kinds of amino acids unique
secondary structure
the protein coils and folds.
the alpha helix,
where the chain twists.
beta pleated sheet
where the chain folds back on itself or where two regions of the chain lie parallel to one another.
Secondary structure results from
hydrogen bonding between atoms along the polypeptide backbone. Oxygen and nitrogen atoms along the backbone are highly electronegative and have weak negative charges, leaving nearby hydrogen atoms with weak positive charges. These negatively and positively charged atoms are attracted to one another at regular intervals along the chain, causing parts of the protein to twist or fold back upon itself.
tertiary lvl
superimposed on secondary lvl. where side chains bond thehre are contortions.
Acidic and basic amino acid R groups ionize, and these positively and negatively charged groups may form ionic bonds. Polar forces also contribute to tertiary structure. Polar side chains may hydrogen bond with one another, or turn outward and hydrogen bond with the surrounding water. Nonpolar side chains cluster on the inside of the protein, away from water. Tertiary structure may be further stabilized by strong covalent bonds called disulfide bridges, which form between sulfur atoms in certain R groups.
tertiary lvl
results from the combination of two or more polypeptide subunits
quaternary stabilized by
same sorts of attractions that stabilize tertiary structure(strong covalent bonds called disulfide bridges, which form between sulfur atoms in certain R groups. ).
what gives orders for its own replication
it is info inherited from parents and has the info for the building of other proteins that carry out cell activities
A discrete unit of hereditary information consisting of a specific nucleotide sequence in DNA (or RNA, in some viruses).
What does DNA form?
RNA which helps out in the make a protein process.
what does mRNA form?
It forms mRNA and is made up of Ribosomal RNA and protein. it copies the genetic message from DNA to the ribosome.tRNA, helps the ribosome translate the mRNA message into protein.
nucleic acids. each is mad eof a nitrogenous base
have are RNa and DNA diff?
DNa doesnt have an oxygen atom on it #2 carbon. Then a phosphate makes up the nucleotide. however, they both have pentose connected to the ribose base