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75 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What questions should be asked when obtaining a sexual history?`
*What are your sexual practices?
*Are sexual partners within the home satisfied with sexual relationship/activities?
*Are contraceptives used?
*Is family planning used?
*Are parents comfortable answering questions and explaining topics related to sexuality to their children?
Condoms are more likely to be effective in prevention of which types of STD's?
Infections that are transmitted via fluids from mucosal surfaces
Condoms are less likely to be effective in prevention of which types of STD's?
Infections transmitted by skin-to-skin contact
Frequent use of what products have been associated with genital lesions?
Describe normal vaginal discharge:
*Clear to white
*high viscosity
What is the normal pH of the vagina?
What is considered to be a "basic" vaginal pH?
Greater than 4.5
What characterizes vaginitis?
*Vaginal discharge
*vulvar itching
Which STD can present as intense itching?
What are the risk factors for Trichomoniasis?
*multiple sex partners
*lower socioeconomic status
*history of STD's
*lack of condom use
How is Trichomoniasis transmitted?
Almost always sexually transmitted
Most STD's can be frequently what?
What is the treatment for trichomoniasis?
Flagyl 2g po x1
With trichomoniasis, what can worsen vaginal discharge?
What conditions are linked to trichomoniasis?
*premature delivery
*low birth weight
*acquisition of HIV
*development of PID
*post-op infections after gyne procedures

True or False: all women with symptomatic bacterial vaginosis require treatment, regardless of pregnancy status
What is the treatment for bacterial vaginosis?
What condition is associated with erythema, irritation, and an occasional erythematous "satellite lesion?"
When obtaining a history on a patient with candidiasis, what is important to ask?
*How often they get yeast infections
*How often they treat self for yeast infection
True or false: trichomoniasis is usually not transmitted via fomite
What is the most common STD in the US?
What might be included in treatment for Chlamydia?
In which drug class is Ofloxacin?
How is gonorrhea transmitted?
intimate contact
What is the incubation period for gonorrhea?
2-7 days
What are common sites of gonorrhea infection?
*upper genital tract
In which drug class are Ceftriaxone and Cefixime?
In which drug class is cipro?
In which drug class is zithromax?
When is syphilis contagious?
Primary and secondary stages
In what stage of syphilis does the "painless chancre" develop?
Primary stage
What is the most contagious stage of syphilis?
Secondary stage
List some complications of congenital syphilis:
*neonatal death
*infant disorders such as deafness, neurologic impairment, bone deformities
What is the treatment for primary, secondary, or early latent syphilis?
*Benzathine penicillin G
What is the treatment for late latent or syphilis of unknown duration?
penicillin G
When should pregnant women be screened for syphilis?
First prenatal visit
Any woman who delivers a stillborn infant past 20 weeks gestation should be tested for what?
List some indicators of secondary syphilis:
*urethral discharge
*rash on torso, palms or soles
*abnormal neurologic exam
What causes the majority of genital and perirectal herpetic outbreaks in the US?
True or False: Most sexual transmission of genital herpes occurs while the carrier is asymptomatic
Likelihood of transmission of genital herpes declines with what?
Increased duration of infection
What facilitates both acquisition and transmission of HIV infection?
Genital HSV-2 infection
List some local symptoms of genital herpes:
*vaginal/urethral discharge
*tender inguinal adenopathy
How long is the mediation duration of viral shedding (from the onset of lesions to the last positive culture)in genital herpes infections?
about 12 days
Which type of herpes primary infection is more prone to recur?
When is most HSV-2 transmitted?
During asymptomatic shedding
What is trichomoniasis?
A transient infection caused by a protozoal organism
Systemic antiviral chemotherapy for herpes includes what?
If a pregnant herpes-infected woman has no signs/symptoms of genital herpes or its prodrome at the time of delivery, can she deliver vaginally?
What is true of most genital HPV infections?
*no clinical consequences
What are the HPV risk factors for women?
*young age
*sexual behavior (increased sex partners)
*Early age of first sex
*sex with males who have multiple partners
*immune status (smoking, etc.)
What are the HPV risk factors for men?
*Greater lifetime number of sex partners
*Greater number of recent sex partners
In order for a Fentanyl patch to be effective, what must be present?
Subcutaneous tissue
What are the four levels of hospice care?
*Continuous care
*In-patient care
What are the five stages of loss?
In hospice care, analgesics should be given how?
Around the clock, not prn
Every gene codes for what?
some sort of protein
Haploid means:
23 pairs
What is aneuploidy?
Abnormal chromosomal pattern; total number of chromosomes are not a multiple of haploid
Aneuploidy includes what?
monosomies and trisomies
What is common with aneuploidy?
physical abnormalities and mental retardation
What is monosomy?
The loss of a single chromosome from a pair(Turner (45, XO))
What is trisomy?
The gain of a single chromosome, resulting in three copies of a specific chromosome (Trisomy 21 - Down Syndrome)
What is euploidy?
normal cell with 46 chromosomes
Achondroplasia (dwarfism) is a result of what abnormality?
Germ cell mutation
What are the clinical manifestations of Down Syndrome?
*flat occiput
*low set ears
*oblique palpebral fissures
*epicanthal folds
*broad nasal bones
*flattened profile
*open mouth with protruding tongue
*Atrial/ventricular defects
*Simian crease
*Acute leukemia
What are the clinical manifestations of trisomy 16-18
*rocker bottom feet
*overlapping fingers
*craniofacial abnormalities
*cardiac defects
Where is the defect in a sex-linked abnormality?
On the x-chromosome
Who is more likely to be a carrier of a sex-linked abnormality?
Who is more likely to be affected by a sex-linked abnormality?
What are the clinical manifestations of Fragile X syndrome?
*mild mental retardation in females, moderate mental retardation in males
*normal growth
*long face
*prominent forehead/jaw
*large ears
*mitral valve prolapse
What characterizes Turner's syndrome?
Missing Y chromosome
How do you check for coarctation of the aorta?
4-limb blood pressure
Chromosome analysis is effective in screening for which abnormalities?
*some translocations
What is the purpose of biochemical/developmental testing?
"looking" for the absence of an enzyme