Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/37

Click to flip

37 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
List the 6 processes in the Proj Time Mgmt ka
1 Define Activities
2 Sequence Activities
3 Estimate Activity Resources
4 Estimate Activity Durations
5 Develop Schedule
6 Control Schedule
Describe the Define Activities process in the Proj Time Mgmt ka
Define Activities is the process of identifying the specific actions to be performed to produce the project deliverables. The Create WBS process identifies the deliverables at the lowest level in the Work Breakdown Structure (WBS), the work package. Project work packages are typically decomposed into smaller components called activities that represent the work necessary to complete the work package. Activities provide a basis for estimating, scheduling, executing, and monitoring and controlling the project work.
Describe the 3 inputs of the Define Activities process
1. Scope Baseline
2. Enterprise Environmental Factors
3. Organizational Process Assets
Describe the 4 tools/techniques for the Define Activities process
1. Decomposition
2. Rolling wave planning - a form of progressive elaboration planning where the work to be accomplished in the near term is planned in detail and future work is planned at a higher level of the WBS. Therefore, work can exist at various levels of detail depending on where it is in the project life cycle.
3. Templates
4. Expert Judgment
Describe the 3 outputs of the Define Activities process
1. Activity list - a comprehensive list including all schedule activities required on the project.
2. Activity attributes - extend the description of the activity by identifying the multiple components associated with each activity. The components for each activity evolve over time. During the initial stages of the project they include the Activity ID, WBS ID, and Activity Name, and when completed may include activity codes, activity description, predecessor activities, successor activities, logical relationships, leads and lags (Section 6.2.2.3), resource requirements, imposed dates, constraints, and assumptions. Activity attributes can be used to identify the person responsible for executing the work, geographic area, or place where the work has to be performed, and activity type such as level of effort (LOE), discrete effort, and apportioned effort (AE).
3. Milestone List - identifies all milestones and indicates whether the milestone is mandatory, such as those required by contract, or optional, such as those based upon historical information.
Describe the Sequence Activities process in the Proj Time Mgmt ka
Sequence Activities is the process of identifying and documenting relationships among the project activities. Activities are sequenced using logical relationships. Every activity and milestone except the first and last are connected to at least one predecessor and one successor. It may be necessary to use lead or lag time between activities to support a realistic and achievable project schedule.
Describe the 5 inputs of the Sequence Activities process
1 Activity List
2 Activity Attributes
3 Milestone List
4 Project Scope Statement
5 Organizational Process Assets
Describe the 4 tools/techniques for the Sequence Activities process
1. Precedence Diagramming Method (PDM) - a method used in Critical Path Methodology (CPM) for constructing a project schedule network diagram that uses boxes or rectangles, referred to as nodes, to represent activities, and connects them with arrows that show the logical relationships that exist between them.
2. Dependency Determination
3. Applying Leads and Lags
4. Schedule Network Templates
Describe the 2 outputs of the Sequence Activities process
1. Project Schedule Network Diagrams - schematic displays of the project’s schedule activities and the logical relationships among them, also referred to as dependencies.
2. Project Document Updates
Describe the four types of dependencies or logical relationships in the Precedence Diagramming Method (PDM). What is the most common type? Least common?
1. Finish-to-start (FS). The initiation of the successor activity depends upon the completion of the predecessor activity.
2. Finish-to-finish (FF). The completion of the successor activity depends upon the completion of the predecessor activity.
3. Start-to-start (SS). The initiation of the successor activity depends upon the initiation of the predecessor activity.
4. Start-to-finish (SF). The completion of the successor activity depends upon the initiation of the predecessor activity.

- In PDM, finish-to-start is the most commonly used type of precedence relationship.
- The start-to-finish relationship is rarely used.
Describe 3 three types of dependencies are used to define the sequence among activities.
1. Mandatory dependencies - those that are contractually required or inherent in the nature of the work. The project team determines which dependencies are mandatory during the process of sequencing the activities. Mandatory dependencies often involve physical limitations, such as on a construction project where it is impossible to erect the superstructure until after the foundation has been built, or on an electronics project, where a prototype must be built before it can be tested. Mandatory dependencies are also sometimes referred to as hard logic.
2. Discretionary dependencies - sometimes referred to as preferred logic, preferential logic, or soft logic. Discretionary dependencies are established based on knowledge of best practices within a particular application area or some unusual aspect of the project where a specific sequence is desired, even though there may be other acceptable sequences. Discretionary dependencies should be fully documented since they can create arbitrary total float values and can limit later scheduling options. When fast tracking techniques are employed, these discretionary dependencies should be reviewed and considered for modification or removal.
3. External dependencies- involve a relationship between project activities and non-project activities. These dependencies are usually outside the project team’s control. For example, the testing activity in a software project can be dependent on the delivery of hardware from an external source, or governmental environmental hearings may need to be held before site preparation can begin on a construction project.
Explain "leads" & "lags"
- A lead allows an acceleration of the successor activity. For example, on a project to construct a new office building, the landscaping could be scheduled to start 2 weeks prior to the scheduled punch list completion. This would be shown as a finish-to-start with a 2-week lead.
- A lag directs a delay in the successor activity. For example, a technical writing team can begin editing the draft of a large document 15 days after they begin writing it. This could be shown as a start-to-start relationship with a 15-day lag.
Describe the Estimate Activity Resources process in the Proj Time Mgmt ka
Estimate Activity Resources is the process of estimating the type and quantities of material, people, equipment, or supplies required to perform each activity.
Describe the 5 inputs to the Estimate Activity Resources process.
1. Activity List
2. Activity Attributes
3. Resource Calendars
4. Enterprise Environmental Factors
5. Organizational Process Assets
Describe the 5 tools/techniques to the Estimate Activity Resources process.
1. Expert Judgment
2. Alternatives Analysis
3. Published Estimating Data
4. Bottom-Up Estimating
5. Project Management Software
Describe the 3 outputs to the Estimate Activity Resources process.
1. Activity Resource Requirements
2. Resource Breakdown Structure
3. Project Document Updates
Describe the Estimate Activity Durations process in the Proj Time Mgmt ka
Estimate Activity Durations is the process of approximating the number of work periods needed to complete individual activities with estimated resources. Estimating activity durations uses information on activity scope of work, required resource types, estimated resource quantities, and resource calendars. The inputs for the estimates of activity duration originate from the person or group on the project team who is most familiar with the nature of the work in the specific activity. The duration estimate is progressively elaborated, and the process considers the quality and availability of the input data.
Describe the 7 inputs to the Estimate Activity Durations process.
1. Activity List
2. Activity Attributes
3. Activity Resource Requirements
4. Resource Calendars
5. Project Scope Statement
6. Enterprise Environmental Factors
7. Organizational Process Assets
Describe the 5 tools/techniques to the Estimate Activity Durations process.
1. Expert Judgment
2. Analogous estimating - uses parameters such as duration, budget, size, weight, and complexity, from a previous, similar project, as the basis for estimating the same parameter or measure for a future project. It is generally less costly and time consuming than other techniques, but it is also generally less accurate.
3. Parametric estimating - uses a statistical relationship between historical data and other variables (e.g., square footage in construction) to calculate an estimate for activity parameters, such as cost, budget, and duration.
4. Three-Point Estimates (PERT)
5. Reserve Analysis
Describe the 2 outputs to the Estimate Activity Durations process.
1. Activity duration estimates - quantitative assessments of the likely number of work periods that will be required to complete an activity. Duration estimates do not include any lags.
2. Project Document Updates
Describe PERT and its 3 estimate types.
Program Evaluation and Review Technique (PERT) - uses three estimates to define an approximate range for an activity’s duration:
1. Most likely (tM). The duration of the activity, given the resources likely to be assigned, their productivity, realistic expectations of availability for the activity, dependencies on other participants, and interruptions.
2. Optimistic (t O). The activity duration is based on analysis of the best-case scenario for the activity.
3. Pessimistic (tP). The activity duration is based on analysis of the worst-case scenario for the activity.
What is the formula to calculate expected activity in PERT? Look at paper notecard for answer.
PERT analysis calculates an Expected (tE) activity duration using a weighted average of the three estimates. (SEE NOTECARD)
Describe the Develop Schedule process in the Proj Time Mgmt ka
The process of analyzing activity sequences, durations, resource requirements, and schedule constraints to create the project schedule.
Describe the 9 inputs to the Develop Schedule process.
1 Activity List
2 Activity Attributes
3 Project Schedule Network Diagrams
4 Activity Resource Requirements
5 Resource Calendars
6 Activity Duration Estimates
7 Project Scope Statement
8 Enterprise Environmental Factors
9 Organizational Process Assets
Describe the 8 tools/techniques to the Develop Schedule process.
1. Schedule Network Analysis - a technique that generates the project schedule. It employs various analytical techniques, such as critical path method, critical chain method, what-if analysis, and resource leveling to calculate the early and late start and finish dates for the uncompleted portions of project activities. Some network paths may have points of path convergence or path divergence that can be identified and used in schedule compression analysis or other analyses.
2. Critical Path Method
3. Critical Chain Method
4. Resource Leveling
5. What-If Scenario Analysis
6. Applying Leads and Lags
7. Schedule Compression - shortens the project schedule without changing the project scope, to meet schedule constraints, imposed dates, or other schedule objectives.
8. Scheduling Tool
Describe the 4 outputs to the Develop Schedule process.
1. Project Schedule
2. Schedule Baseline - a specific version of the project schedule developed from the schedule network analysis.
3. Schedule Data
4. Project Document Updates
Describe the Critical Path Method.
The critical path method calculates the theoretical early start and finish dates, and late start and finish dates, for all activities without regard for any resource limitations, by performing a forward and backward pass analysis through the schedule network. The resulting early and late start and finish dates are not necessarily the project schedule; rather, they indicate the time periods within which the activity could be scheduled, given activity durations, logical relationships, leads, lags, and other known constraints.
What is "total float"?
Calculated early start and finish dates, and late start and finish dates, may be affected by activity total float, which provides schedule flexibility and, may be positive, negative, or zero. On any network path, the schedule flexibility is measured by the positive difference between early and late dates, and is termed “total float.” Critical paths have either a zero or negative total float, and schedule activities on a critical path are called “critical activities.” A critical path is normally characterized by zero total float on the critical path. Networks can have multiple near critical paths. Adjustments to activity durations, logical relationships, leads and lags, or other schedule constraints may be necessary to produce network paths with a zero or positive total float. Once the total float for a network path has been calculated then the free fl oat, the amount of time that an activity can be delayed without delaying the early start date of any immediate successor activity within the network path, can also be determined.
Describe the Critical Chain Method.
Critical chain is a schedule network analysis technique that modifies the project schedule to account for limited resources. Initially, the project schedule network diagram is built using duration estimates with required dependencies and defined constraints as inputs. The critical path is then calculated. After the critical path is identified, resource availability is entered and the resource-limited schedule result is determined. The resulting schedule often has an altered critical path.
The resource-constrained critical path is known as the critical chain. The critical chain method adds duration buffers that are non-work schedule activities to manage uncertainty. One buffer, placed at the end of the critical chain, is known as the project buffer and protects the target finish date from slippage along the critical chain. Additional buffers, known as feeding buffers, are placed at each point that a chain of dependent tasks not on the critical chain feeds into the critical chain. Feeding buffers thus protect the critical chain from slippage along the feeding chains. The size of each buffer should account for the uncertainty in the duration of the chain of dependent tasks leading up to that buffer. Once the buffer schedule activities are determined, the planned activities are scheduled to their latest possible planned start and finish dates. Consequently, in lieu of managing the total float of network paths, the critical chain method focuses on managing remaining buffer durations against the remaining durations of task chains.
Describe Resource Leveling
Resource leveling is a schedule network analysis technique applied to a schedule that has already been analyzed by the critical path method. Resource leveling can be used when shared or critical required resources are only available at certain times, are only available in limited quantities, or to keep resource usage at a constant level. Resource leveling is necessary when resources have been over-allocated, such as when a resource has been assigned to two or more activities during the same time period, when shared or critical required resources are only available at certain times or are only available in limited quantities. Resource leveling can often cause the original critical path to change.
Describe What-If Scenario Analysis
This is an analysis of the question “What if the situation represented by scenario ‘X’ happens?” A schedule network analysis is performed using the schedule to compute the different scenarios, such as delaying a major component delivery, extending specific engineering durations, or introducing external factors, such as a strike or a change in the permitting process. The outcome of the what-if scenario analysis can be used to assess the feasibility of the project schedule under adverse conditions, and in preparing contingency and response plans to overcome or mitigate the impact of unexpected situations. Simulation involves calculating multiple project durations with different sets of activity assumptions. The most common technique is Monte Carlo Analysis (Section 11.4.2.2), in which a distribution of possible activity durations is defined for each activity and used to calculate a distribution of possible outcomes for the total project.
Describe the 2 schedule compression techniqes.
1. Crashing - A schedule compression technique in which cost and schedule tradeoffs are analyzed to determine how to obtain the greatest amount of compression for the least incremental cost. Examples of crashing could include approving overtime, bringing in additional resources, or paying to expedite delivery to activities on the critical path. Crashing only works for activities where additional resources will shorten the duration. Crashing does not always produce a viable alternative and may result in increased risk and/or cost.
2. Fast tracking - A schedule compression technique in which phases or activities normally performed in sequence are performed in parallel. An example is constructing the foundation for a building before completing all of the architectural drawings. Fast tracking may result in rework and increased risk. Fast tracking only works if activities can be overlapped to shorten the duration.
Describe 3 possible formats for representing project schedules
1. Milestone charts - similar to bar charts, but only identify the scheduled start or completion of major deliverables and key external interfaces.
2. Bar charts - show activity start and end dates, as well as expected durations.
3. Project schedule network diagrams - contain activity date information, usually show both the project network logic and the project’s critical path schedule activities.
Describe the Control Schedule process in the Proj Time Mgmt ka
Control Schedule is the process of monitoring the status of the project to update project progress and manage changes to the schedule baseline. Schedule control is concerned with:
- Determining the current status of the project schedule,
- Influencing the factors that create schedule changes,
- Determining that the project schedule has changed, and
- Managing the actual changes as they occur.
Describe the 4 inputs of the Control Schedule process.
1 Project Management Plan
2 Project Schedule
3 Work Performance Information
4 Organizational Process Assets
Describe the 8 tools/techniques of the Control Schedule process.
1. Performance Reviews - measure, compare, and analyze schedule performance such as actual start and finish dates, percent complete, and remaining duration for work in progress.
2. Variance Analysis - Schedule performance measurements (SV, SPI) are used to assess the magnitude of variation to the original schedule baseline. The total float variance is also an essential planning component to evaluate project time performance.
3. Project Management Software
4. Resource Leveling
5. What-If Scenario Analysis
6. Adjusting Leads and Lags
7. Schedule Compression
8. Scheduling Tool
Describe the 5 outputs of the Control Schedule process.
1. Work Performance Measurements (SV & SPI)
2. Organizational Process Assets Updates
3. Change Requests
4. Project Management Plan Updates
5. Project Document Updates